The big day for my sister is approaching rapidly, and my parents are kind of stressed out, trying to make sure all of the arrangements are in place for the wedding. We did not really have a proper amount of time to plan this wedding. My sister requested to me that I buy her hair extensions as a wedding present, and I am going to buy curly clip in hair extensions because I think that they would really look good. Well, before I buy them, I am going to have to check with my sister and make sure that she likes them. It is very important that she actually likes the extensions, because she plans on wearing them for the wedding.
Have you long given up on yet another New Year’s resolution to get off the couch and develop a healthy lifestyle? Unfortunately, you’re not alone. Nearly half of Americans are either out of shape or severely over weight. Don’t confuse being slim with being healthy. Food choices, cardiovascular capacity and muscle strength are greater determinations of whole body health than simply a targeted BMI. Follow these recommendations for developing and sustaining a healthy lifestyle.
While our food supply has undergone enormous changes and our lifestyles have become increasingly sedentary, the fundamentals of healthy living have changed very little. Put healthy gas in the engine and don’t idle. While looking for quick fixes to unhealthy lifestyles, so many recommendations eschew diet over exercise or exercise over diet. There is no denying the fact that it is a combination of the two that sets the stage for healthy living. Take a hard look in your pantry. If it’s processed, full of sugar or load of carbs and fat, get rid of it or donate it to a food pantry. It’s a falsehood that large amounts of fat are necessary to feel satiated. While you may well have trained your body to respond to signals of satiety produced by fat consumption, you can just as easily retrain the body. Steer clear of fatty, processed food and those with added sugars.
Finally, get off the couch and move. You don’t need to start training for an Ironman or jump right into a crossfit class, do make a plan for daily exercise. At the beginning this can be as simple as walking thirty minutes a day and stretching for ten minutes Within two weeks of healthy eating choices and a consistent walking and stretching regime, you’ll begin to see and feel positive changes in your body. Good luck to you and your healthy lifestyle choices. Keep it simple and it will be sustainable!
Video conferencing is an integral part of this era’s business environment. With everything going global, the countries and continents are getting connected. The same has occurred in business where people are interacting with their partners and collaborators over a great distance through video conferencing.
There are different types of video conferencing solutions. The frequency of using a video conferencing varies with the size and need of organization. Hence, it is of much importance to choose the right kind according to one’s business needs.
How to decide which system to choose
Let us have a look at the factors, which must be weighed down before choosing a video conferencing system-
- Decide the expense
It turns out to be the most important factor for buying anything. There are many video conferencing systems available. One should first find out their needs and then accordingly decide the expense you can bear. Experts may be consulted with for this purpose.
- How many people may take part
This is also one important factor. For a big organization handing a comparatively vast business will definitely have more people taking part. So, they will need a sophisticated and advanced system which may incorporate large number of people. On the other hand, a comparatively small business may do well with a much moderate system.
Another important measure is the concern of security. There is undoubtedly very crucial information that is passed over a video conference. Also some important conversation may be happening between the management of the companies taking part. Hence, it is important to have a system installed, which will be nearly immune to any kind of hacking and can protect the classified information.
- Compatibility with excising network
It is important to check before finalizing a video conferencing system that how the existing system reacts to it. The video conferencing adds to the traffic of network. Hence, it may be required to update the existing network before incorporating a video conference.
- The features require
Like any other digital system, the video conferencing system comes with mammy features. One must check how many of it will be actually required by him or by his business, the price of these systems go up and down depending upon the features.
- Compatibility with the business partner
Video conferencing is a two way process. Hence, one must check the compatibility with their partner’s system. One who works with many partners should be chosen.
- The microphones
If the microphone is not well-installed or if it is available to only one person, it is not going to be a successful video conferencing. The functioning of microphones must be checked in terms of its reach and flexibility.
- The reach of the camera
For more than one person taking part in video conferencing, it is important to check the visibility of all of them clearly or it might later turn into a struggle for everyone to participate.
- The availability of connecting devices
An organization must check with the available devices that need to be connected with video conferencing. It must be checked if they need come additional support
A video conferencing system is not less than a revolution. Not just talks but even collaboration of technologies is possible through it. Hence, one must carefully check with all the above mentioned factors of video conferencing system and choose one which will not only be economically suitable, but also technically potential.
Chapter -7, a momentary look on the Muslim’s social and cultural scenario of Azamgarh. By: Dr. Equbal Wajid] The inspection team of JAMIA TUL FALAH stayed at KOHNDA for complete 24 hours. How the lady teachers inspected the Girls School I don’t know but for the boy’s school we stepped in the campus, visited the class rooms, kitchen, hostels, and office. In a class room some chairs were set to hold a meeting with the members of the Managing Committee. We met the teachers and the students. It was an overall remark of all of us that this School is running tactfully and the sacrifice and efforts of the Managing Committee was visible on every step. I was also surprised how they succeeded to make a huge building for the School without any official help.
Not only KOHNDA, but in the entire AZAMGARH District the Muslim primary education is in Muslim hands. The villagers take the responsibility of the primary education in their village, manage and run private schools on their own social responsibility. As a result up the class Vth not a single Muslim student is seen in the Government Primary Schools. To run private primary schools in every village has become a social norm among Muslims in AZAMGARH District. This is what we can call it a step towards being self-dependent and self-reliant. No doubt that this social norm in the reign has been created by JAMIA TUL FALAH the giant institution of this locality. JAMIA TUL FALAH is running not merely just like an institution but a body of social change. I have witnessed a number Islamic social values twinkling in Azamgarh District, and I believe to say that JAMIA TUL FLAH is one of its main architects.
An institution is a social body that is established not only with the aim to educate the learners but with a broad objective of changing the norms of the society, so as the sociologist believe that an institution does more to change the society than leadership. Through JAMIATUL FALAH this ideology has become more and more common in the district that a Muslim boy must learn the Islamic basic teachings in his early childhood. When visited the Boys School at KOHNDA we were glad to see the strength and the infrastructure of the institution. The huge school building of the school was telling us the enthusiastic and zealous approach of its management committee. How zealous efforts could have been done to achieve the goal. The teachers to whom we met were the picture of sacrifice. Though their salaries were low but they seemed satisfied and contented. I prayed to Allah for their betterment.
Next day after breakfast we left KOHNDA. It was scheduled earlier, that the team has to visit LONIYADIH GIRLS SCHOOL in return. LONIYADIA was a Muslim village adjacent to the road that goes from MAHUL to Azamgarh via Phoolpur. We started from KONDA and within an hour we were at LONIYADIH. I failed to remember what the actual reason was, but I remember that I was asked to take a bus or a passenger jeep and go to Bilariyaganj. Therefore I got down of the Vehicle and looked for a Jeep that could carry me to Azamgarh. As I have mentioned, in Azamgarh District the road communication is much frequent. One has not to bother about paid taxi. He has to stand beside a road and he will get a Jeep very soon.
At JAMIATUL FALAH I was busy to draft a report of this educational trip. Anyhow, the report was prepared and the next day Dr.Khalil saw the report. I distributed the copies of the report among the inspection team and was ready to do the next task.
The list of the Villages of the area was given to me. I started my work. On Saturday I use to go on tour. One day in a week I started visiting one of the villages adjacent to Bilariyaganj, and on the other day I use to visit villages that are farther. The Villages that have circled Bilariyaganj are, Gulwan, Naseerpur, Alluddin Patti, Jaigahan, Mohiuddinpur, Bhawapur, Bankat, Jairajpur, Bindwal [the birth place of Allama Shibli Numani], Chandpatti, Zaidpur, Jee’enpur, Shekhopur, Khalispur Bhawapur, Cheeheen, Chichori [ new name Ahmedpur] and many other villages.
The first village that I visited was next to Bilariyaganj Market, as you will cross the Bilariyaganj Market in the north you will find a Village. You need not to bother for a Vehicle because it is an on foot journey. I walked there and visited the School. It was a lower Primary School. It was run by Rafiuddin Sahab a non-teaching staff in Shoba e Aala JAMIATUL FLAH. I remembered that for the first time I met him in Shoba e Aala he was not as polite, his outer looked like an egoistic man. He had big eyeballs to gaze everybody. When I was there in his School, by the time he also reached there and cooperated with me in collecting data. He asked me that FALAH has never given any aid to our School as it needs some financial help. The charity that comes in the name of the school is not sufficient. I asked him that I will put the matter before Dr.Khalil. Mr. Rafiuddin asked me for lunch which I refused but he managed some refreshment for me. I noted everything, the number of students in each class, number of teachers, number and size of the class rooms, names of the members of the Managing Committee and many other things.
By lunch time I was at JAMIA TUL FALAH. Today’s work was done, now I have to look for tomorrow. In JAMIA TUL FALAH even after 4 or 5 months I had not been allotted any separate or shared room. I was still living in the Guest room. So daily I have to see new faces. They were mostly the guardian of the students who come to see their child periodically. Some of them have seen me two or three times on the same room. Therefore I was lacking my own privacy. Little by little I was annoyed by this sort of life style but I never make myself a deep feel of it. -Adjustment -was the top lesson that I had learned from Dr. Syed Hasan. I said to myself that it is my test and I have to win it. After three or four months I was shifted in a staff room where few middle School teachers were living together. I remember one of my room partner Abu Sualeh Sahib from a nearby village who became closer to me. Abu Sualeh was working in the Kitchen Office. JAMIA TUL FALAH’S kitchen was not a merely a kitchen. It was a kitchen where the meal for more than two thousand students was being cooked. It had its own office and 4 to 5 clerical staff was working under the supervision of an In-Charge. Students deposit all kind of fees in this office. The students were never satisfied with food management.
In the beginning and end of the academic-session this office was over crowded with guardians and students. They have to clear off their dues before appearing in the examinations. Sometimes queues are formed automatically. Morning to evening the staff never get time to take rest. Two small buffaloes were being slaughtered as a daily routine in the Kitchen premises. The staffs were allowed to purchase meat if they like. Sometimes I buy two kilograms of meat and kook it without using spies. It was liked by my roommates who never wait for an invitation. There were servants to carry food from the kitchen to rooms. The rooms were divided among the servants, their responsibility was to bring food in the rooms and then collect the used utensils back after sometime. Food for Girls hostel was also cooked in the same kitchen. When the meal becomes ready it was separated in other utensils and was brought to Girls Hostel. The empty and cleaned tiffin-carriers of the girl students were put at a place and the servants have to distribute the meal in each container. The girls will take their food that is separated room wise and then again the empty Tiffin carrier is back to the kitchen. There was a gentle man named Shamshad Sahab form Hengaipur village adjacent to Bilariyaganj. In my time he was the main Cashier of the Kitchen Office. He was an honest man, and I know nothing against him. A canteen was also opened for the students. If anyone wants to enjoy he can buy fried items, Shakarpala and Jalebi from the Canteen.
Sweats are commonly used in Azamgarh. In the entire District it is one of their main traditions in all communities that simply water is never served to guests. Whoever he may be or whoever be the host, a sweaty item will be served definitely with the water. Regardless of a poor or rich it is common to all. As a result people don’t ask for water if they are at someone’s door. Water will come automatically along with sweats in a plate. Even poors keep some sweaty items compulsorily in their houses to serve with water to the guest or anyone who stops at their door. XXX [continued–..]
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Advertising is something that promotes sales. This is an axiom in the business world. Besides, modern newspapers and magazines would have never survived without advertising. In fact, this is how they work. Journalists do not produce anything that people can buy, except for their articles. People buy newspapers but this is not enough for a newspaper or any other printed periodical to survive. Thats why newspapers publish ads as printed media are the best place to reach target audience. A person specifically buys a newspaper to read it, and he or she is virtually compelled to have a look at the ad that is published near the article. Efficiency of newspapers and magazines ads is very high. However, every advertiser must constantly analyze ads efficiency. These days, advertising costs huge money, and naturally, advertiser expects return on this investment. Producers expect sales growth while companies offering services expect and increased number of customers.
When choosing key performance indicators in press advertising one should always bear in mind strategic goals of a company. Besides, top management and those responsible for advertising should analyze numerous factors, such as competition in the industry, customer purchasing power, circulation of printed media etc. In simple words, this is all about making a decision whether or not to publish an ad in a newspaper or a magazine.
Perhaps, the most important key performance indicators are located in financial category. It is all about money in advertising. The company spends a certain amount of money to earn more money. So for example, if one million dollars was spent to advertise a product and sales for advertising period never grew up such investment is a failure. Thus, it is very important to evaluate such indicators as advertising cost per total sales volume ratio and growth inquiries (number of people who got interested in a new product or service being advertised). The most important key performance indicator is cost per thousand (CPT) which is the amount of money spent to reach 1,000 individuals from a target customer group. There is statistics that shows how many people actually buy a product having seen advertising in printed media. These indicators will help measure efficiency of advertising campaign. If people start buying a product, advertising cost for sales growth ratio will drop, which will be a positive sign pro
ving efficiency of chosen advertising methods.
There are also indirect indicators that can also show positive and negative trends in an advertising campaign in printed media. Awareness rate and number of inquiries do not directly result in sales growth, but it means that people got interested in the offered product. This increases possibility of buying it. It means that the ad has reached its target customer. The decision is to be made by customer and it depends on what he or she has seen in the ad. However, this is the issue to be considered by ad makers and advertising agencies.
Use of Balanced Scorecard will surely save advertising costs and improve efficiency of a press advertising campaign.
For many years now there has been a stigma attached to the “Compensation Culture”. Ever since the American big boom over a decade ago when everybody seemed to be having their day in court. There were of course many horror stories, such as the man who dragged a lady from a lake, revived her and then promptly received a court summons, he was sued by the lady for cracking her ribs!
It of course has taken quite some time for the compensation culture to reach Europe, but, just as the Big Mac found its way across the water, so have the legal eagles that want us all to make that claim for compensation.
This is the main reason why claiming compensation now has a “stigma” attached to it, people are classed as “money grabbers” and yes, there are many cases that have been brought to light in the past few years regarding “fakers” and “con-men” but the fact of the matter is, many of the claims for compensation against third parties are actually valid.
Why do people make claims for compensation?
Normally a claim for compensation is made because one person has been the victim of a third parties cruelty, dishonesty, neglect or lack of care of attention, lets face it, if you have suffered mentally, physically or financially at the hands of another, surely you should be entitled to compensation!
When is it wrong to make a claim for compensation?
In short, if you have been a victim and have suffered because of somebody else, the answer is NEVER! It is your right as a citizen of the European Union to make a claim for compensation, and there are many ways that this can be done.
No Win No Fee – How does it work?
Many people choose to make compensation claims via a “No Win No Fee” arrangement, this usually means that whatever the outcome, the compensation claim will not cost you a penny, however, you should read all the paperwork carefully and look for clauses in any agreement before you sign them, if you live in the United Kingdom you can take your paperwork to the Citizens Advice Bureau who will check it for free.
A No Win No Fee agreement will normally mean taking out an insurance policy in case you lose your case, this covers both you and your solicitor against expensive legal fees that can often escalate into very large sums.
There are many different reasons why people make claims for compensation, and no person who feels that they have a genuine reason to claim should ever feel that they are in the wrong, it is essential that both individuals and companies within the European Union understand the importance of “Due Care and Attention” and “Due Diligence” and if this means “hitting them where it hurts” then so be it.
Reasons for making claims for compensation or No Win No Fee Compensation Claims can include; Road Traffic Accidents, Accidents at Work, Discrimination in the Workplace, Unfair Dismissal, Racism, Criminal Damage, Criminal Violence, Loss of Earnings, Medical Negligence, Accidents on Holiday, if fact, the list is endless, if you have suffered at the hands of another, you should consider making a claim for compensation.
Martin Bleasdale is an Internet Marketing Consultant and Editor of the European Claims Line website http://www.claimline.eu , this article may be reproduced as long as remains intact with a live link to the claim line website.
As todays is full of hectic most of them catch up the latest news of various present events in Hindi news. That the situation where the newspaper comes in handy for the person daily needs. The newspapers are easy carry to various types of interesting news. Some people who are interested to know about day to day activities, the news paper is one which helps him by delivering various types of news. For some people it is mere time pass or means to kill the time by solving the puzzles, reading the gossips of the celebrities. For some of home maker, it is source for some interesting Indian Recipes. For the book lover, it is a place which help them to know about latest release which the review of Hindi literature.
The newspaper are easy available in affordable price. Other advantage of the newspaper is that it has various sections such as discussion forums such as food section etc where the person can read the favorite Indian recipe in Hindi. In newspaper you can also share the ideas, discuss and also participate by submitting the review about the Hindi literature and this surely one of the ways to stay connected with the world. As the technology has developed, the T.V was invented which provide the daily dose information with the video in the Hindi news which the people can watch in free time. But we cannot carry the television to the entire place to get updated with recent news.
As the newspaper can be carried any where it is most prefer choice of the people. The impressive speeches with the images which are related to the information which keep the people glued to the interesting short and precise topics. With this topic the reader can not only gain knowledge about the world news about also about the various other things such as Hindi literature, bollywood news, Indian recipes etc. other than newspaper you can also get the Hindi news through various other medium such as watching daily bulletin, joining the online news forum, reading the magazine which is related to news etc. This will ensure that the reader will reader and viewer are easily interested and get involved in the news. Another advantage of news is that it enhance the knowledge of the people in various current affairs in and around in world in various issues
The newspaper is the first place that a home in the process of default is going to be listed. There are many things that you can tell about these homes when you read the ads. These things include the stage of the default, the location of the home, and when the auction is posted.
The stages foreclosures are in can make a world of difference with how you would purchase the house. The first public notice that is posted in the paper is the notice of default which states the homeowner has defaulted on their mortgage payments. At this stage the borrower may intend to keep the house or let it become foreclosed. You can contact a homeowner if you are interested in the property. In a few months if the homeowner has not caught up on their payments then the next notice will be intent to sell.
The newspaper will give you the address of the home. It will not give you information about the house but house sales are public information. So once you have the physical address you can learn the square footage and other details about the house by looking up the original sale documentation. This way you can research the price the house sold for, the address to see if you like the way it looks, and the square footage so you know if it is big enough for your family.
The intent to sell is another public notice that you will see in a local newspaper regarding foreclosures. This type of notice is the intent to sell the house at an auction because the bank wants their money back for the loan. The auction date, time, and location will be listed under this public notice.
The newspaper is a common place that people look to find Los Angeles foreclosure homes because it is the first place the notifications appear to the public. Any type of information about foreclosed houses is public information and available to anyone who would like to know about them.
People using ereaders such as Kindle to read instead of the printed books, magazines and newspaper are on the increase. These wireless reading devices allow readers to download and store over a thousand ebooks limiting the need for paper and therefore less need to cut down trees, the lungs of our planet.
Records show that there were three million ereaders sold in 2009 and this figure is expected to rise significantly in the coming years because the newer models have several good attractive features. Each upgrade seem lighter, slimmer and cheaper.
The important question is, does ereaders such as Kindle help reduce global warming and help the environment? These gadgets may have significant positive impact on global warming if ereaders are used more extensively worldwide. When the demand for printed books, magazines and newspaper is less because people prefer to have the digital version, then the use of paper will be reduced. The digital version of books, newspaper and magazines will be cheaper and cost nothing to deliver. Lower CO2 release will result from less printing and distribution.
To make one ereader like Kindle releases 168 kg. of CO2. The produce a book uses 7.48 kg. of CO2 (CNET). In other words after reading about 23 ebooks, you start saving on CO2 release. Cleantech claim that between 2009 and 2012, ereaders could save 1.5 billion kg. of CO2.This is encouraging.
Annually we cut down 125 million trees according to experts for paper to be used in printing. In addition, if you add a further effect of conversion into paper, printing then distribution, it is easy to understand why printed books have the distinction of having the highest carbon footprint for a single unit. Of the printed matter produced, about a third are returned to be recycled, thrown away or incinerated.
Sarah Rotman Epps, Media Analyst, says that currently ebooks are not having any positive effect on the environment. This will only happen when publishers print fewer books in antipication of increased ebook sales. So if the amount of printed paper remains constant, there will still be the same amount of trees cut down and there will be no impact on the environment.
Not only is carbon dioxide released in the production of Kindle, but the battery is charged from electricity from fossil fuel power source. LG, a Korean Company has produced a solar powered ereader, according to Tech News World. This must be a step in the right direction. One day all ereaders will be solar powered.
Having a Kindle or any other ereader will save you money on books, magazines and newspaper. Papers and magazines can be archived and read over again at a later date. Ereaders are getting cheaper and they save space. There is also the issue of electronic waste. Apple iPad does not contain PVC, a highly toxic substance, according to the New York Times. So far Amazon Kindle and other ereaders have not submitted similar evidence.
The bottom line is the environment will not benefit until the volume of printed material is reduced as a result of a great demand for ebooks, magazines and newspaper from Kindle and other ereaders.
Shri Namramuni Maharajsaheb the youngest Jain saint of Gondal Sampraday is one of those Jain Saints who has tried to bring lots of changes in the society and has been a stand out motivator in spreading the culture among the people and explaining the importance of humanity and equality.
Namramuni is young but this is never reflected in the decision making. Shri Namramuni is very much confident and more than confident in his decision making and Namramuni sees to it that his decision is not causing any kind of inconvenience to any kind of people. Namramuni Maharajsaheb used the advantage of being young and used modern way techniques to attract more youngsters to contribute for the community.
Namramuni Maharajsaheb decided to take diksha at a very small age and he became the Namramuni Maharajsaheb at just 21 years of age and for that he went to Jodhpur for religious studies and learnt 32 Agams (Jain Granths) and their meanings. All this qualities of Shri Namramuni Maharajsaheb clearly reflects in his way of talking and approach in his life.
He after being such a big personality is very much kind and humble and is a very strong follower of Humanity. Namramuni even after being a Jain Saint has no problems with other religions and is a strong believer in unity. Namramuni Maharajsaheb has never disrespected rather he believes in the policy of respecting each other in every situation.
Namramuni Maharajsaheb a revolutionary Jain Monk chose to construct PAWANDHAM at Kandivali instead of Jain Temple and it is the address of all the religion SARVADHARAM; in future he would like to construct more such conceptual Temples, the place will be open for all the religion and it will not be restricted only to Jain community.
Sucha wonderful thought by a great personality; he felt the need of coming together of all religions for the unity and development of the country and so for this he has taken such a wonderful step and loving each other equally is the prime responsibility of human being and Namramuni Maharajs this step might turn out to be a landmark event in the history of Jainism.
The people of the country this way would create new wave of love and respect to the members of the Jain community. So Pawandham was one of those wise decisions of Shri Namramuni Maharajsaheb which would increase the unity, love and Harmony among the people of the country.
I wish that there are many more people like Namramuni Maharajsaheb in this world who will take such nice concepts to build up peace and harmony in the society by focusing on concepts like Humanity and Unity. Long Live Namramuni Maharajsaheb.
There have been many times where a new technological development have brought about predictions of the demise of an older technology. It was widely proclaimed that television would kill radio and the movies. Some also said that the emergence of online stores and commerce would kill traditional physical retailing. Along the same line of thought, many predicted the end of physically printed magazines and newspapers with the advent of digital publishing of these media. None of these predictions have as of yet come true, but the growing presence and benefits of digital magazines and newspapers is a fact.
Readers of newspapers and news oriented magazines have always wanted to know what’s going on in a current and accurate fashion. Of course they like to be entertained as well. Print media has done a good job with this, but it can’t compare to digitally published media that is distributed via the internet. With the prevalence of the internet, readers want to know what’s going on NOW, not yesterday or even many hours ago. Very importantly, many readers today don’t want to hear just from reporters or editors, but from other readers as well. This doesn’t mean just a reader opinion piece, but where the readers themselves become the source and contributors of the news.
Along this line of thought, readers today also want news and information media to be very reader relevant and interactive. They want to be able to “search” the publication for relevant information, not just rely on static tables of contents, indexes or summaries. Most of these reader demanded attributes require the media to be truly interactive on a real time basis. This can only be accomplished via digital publishing.
As for the entertainment factor, digital newspapers and magazines are far superior to the printed versions. On line media provides the ability to publish multimedia content, including audio, video, and interactive graphics and photos. Many readers get great entertainment value from the ability to actually publish their own news pieces and article “talk backs” (on line reader opinion pieces).
Even for magazines that are not necessarily a news publication, digital publishing provides many similar advantages and benefits. Imagine a travel magazine where the readers can actually experience destinations via video, audio and interactive content such as 3D maps. Any specialty magazine can utilize the same digital technology, such as fashion, hobby and activity magazines. Of course, the prior mentioned benefits regarding currency, reader interaction and relevancy all apply here as well.
Then there are the business and financial advantages to publishing magazines and newspapers digitally. There are no print run costs or physical distribution costs. It is definitely more “green” to digitally publish as you don’t use paper to print or fuel for delivery vehicles. There is a marketing advantage as well, as more and more readers are online more and more of the time. Your publication needs to be online to have effective visibility and accessibility. This is especially true with the rapidly growing use of hand held device that access the internet.
Therefore, while print media is not dead and may never be, for the above reasons, it is crucial that a newspaper or magazine publish digitally in order to be successful and grow.
If you are reading this you have an interest in the future of the newspaper industry. This was written to document my experience and thoughts about a drastically changing industry and to hopefully stimulate serious discussion in finding solutions for our most trusted source of news. My entire career has been in the print media industry: from my first agency job working in yellow pages to my latest role as Associate Media Director managing the budget for a major newspaper advertiser. I have never worked for a newspaper, nor have I worked for a newspaper advertiser, however for over eight years I purchased over one billion dollars in newspaper media, from the largest major dailies to small market weeklies. I was caught between the excuses of declining circulation from publishers and frustration from the advertisers over a once stable media currently portrayed to be in chaos.
Despite the inability of the daily subscription newspaper to fight effectively against the news outlets on the internet, starting your own newspaper can have tremendous influence and financial benefits. Read on to find out how to start your own newspaper.
People throughout history have always been looking and trying to establish good relationships with others they can easily communicate with. The growth of mass media, and more importantly, newspapers has made this entirely possible. Newspaper marketing, such as newspaper SEO, reaches and touches all of our lives on a daily basis.
Language learners often write telling me about some area of learning or area of their lives where they are experiencing difficulties of comprehension and ask me for a trick or a guide to help them learn.
This website is a collection of newspapers and infromaion about the news media. The online newspaper list is one of the largest newspaper list on the net. Each country page contain newspaper collection and informaion about the newspapers & media of that country.ry.
Whether you are looking to buy a home for living in or whether are looking to just invest in real estate, you will need to get hold of real estate listings as the first thing. Internet and newspapers are the most common ways of getting real estate listings.
With internet gaining popularity, internet real estate listings have become one of the easiest ways of checking out the real estate listings. Though the traditional method of looking for real estate listings (through newspapers) is still one of the most used methods, it is a very time consuming one. You have to read through various listings and sort out the ones that seem more suitable to you (and possibly write down the phone numbers and contact details on a piece of paper) and then call up the owners/brokers to fix an appointment for viewing the property (which may turn out to be totally disgusting in the end). Moreover, the newspaper listings generally happen on a weekly basis. So if a deal has materialised in the meanwhile, there is no way you can check it without actually calling up the owner/broker. On the contrary, the internet real estate listings (on a good real estate listings website) are updated everyday or maybe twice a week. Moreover, new real estate listings go up on the internet everyday (i.e. they don’t wait for the newspaper to get published).
So, if you have been using only the newspaper as your source of real estate listing information, you might end up getting stale information. You might lose out on a deal that was out on internet, say 2 days before. As such, making the first offer can make a big difference when it comes to real estate. Further, you don’t need to go through all the real estate listings in order to determine the listings that look suitable to you. You can specify various search criteria/ filters in order to get only those real estate listings that you really want to look into. This is a big advantage when compared with newspapers where listings are generally classified just on the basis of location of the property. Thus you can save a lot of time here by browsing only through the real estate listings that are of interest to you. Moreover, there is no need to note phone numbers etc; you can just take printouts of the listings you want. Some websites also provide tools/ facilities to track those real estate listings. You could even contact the sellers by sending a message through the website (some websites provide such email type of facility). Another important benefit from real estate listings on internet is that some of them also contain images of the property. So you can have a look at the images and see if you like the property at all.
So, real estate listings on the internet do seem to offer a lot of convenience. However, internet or newspaper is really a matter of personal choice too.
For more information be sure to follow the link in the resource box below.
When thinking of the art of Indochina , one tends to think mainly of the Buddhist art displayed in temples across the area or of the Khmer architecture of Cambodia. But that is to miss a lot of what Indochina has to offer to the art lover. And the region’s art is not all ancient! There is a flourishing contemporary art scene throughout the area, attracting serious buyers and collectors from across the globe.
To take Vietnam as an example, we can see a long history of artistic works, from the stone age to the present day. As with many aspects of Vietnam’s culture, influences have been absorbed from far and wide. Some of the oldest art is displayed through decorated bronze drums depicting scenes of everyday life such as farming, fighting, shipbuilding, music making, etc. Later the influence of China was dominant and the Vietnamese learned many new skills and techniques. Ceramics and porcelain became important.
After independence from China, art continued to flourish, with artists combining elements from whichever cultures they came into contact with. During the Nguyen dynasty, Vietnam’s last imperial dynasty, the emperors encouraged artists and Vietnamese ceramics were exported across Indochina and beyond. Today, calligraphy, originally based on Chinese, now continues using the Roman alphabet, making a unique art form while silk painting and woodblock prints are also very popular.
During the French colonisation, artists across Indochina began to absorb European influences and the French established several art schools. Today that tradition of absorption continues and there are rich, vibrant art scenes in Hanoi, Phnom Penh, Bangkok etc. In Hanoi, for example, the old district is a maze of streets where you can find several galleries specialising in contemporary Vietnamese art. You can even find a French style caf with art displays and sales.
Laos has a more religion based art. The decorative arts and architecture of the temples and the Buddhist sculptures comprise the high art while in the folk arts the many minorities have their own distinctive styles. Lao ceramics were unknown until the 1970s when they were discovered during excavations in the Vientiane area. Again, western art using oils and water colours were introduced by the French and there is a small but active art community in Vientiane, centred on the National Faculty of Fine Arts, producing original works. Vientiane’s T’Shop La Gallery displays and sells contemporary art.
As with much of its population, Cambodia’s artists suffered unimaginably during the Pol Pot era, but today, thanks to the Cambodian government. NGOs and the growing number of visitors, a dynamic art scene has emerged here combining the ancient and the modern. But Cambodia’s arts highlight must remain Ankor Wat, the peak of the Khmer civilisation’s artistic achievement. The architecture and decoration will leave a permanent impression.
Thailand , being the most outward looking nation in Indochina, with its more established tourism has a thriving contemporary art scene and has taken part in many European art events. Again, contemporary Thai art combines modern techniques and ideas with the more traditional, which in Thailand’s case also means the Buddhist tradition. Traditional art is to be found in the sumptuously decorated temples and in the Buddhist statues. Most art is to be seen in the innumerable temples, but there is also a fine collection in the National Gallery of the National Museum in Bangkok, as well as in many smaller galleries.
Yunnan in southwest China has a strong tradition of ethnic art from its minority peoples. Woodblock prints are especially popular, with each artist taking weeks to create each work. Batiks are also produced featuring both traditional and modern topics and themes. Towns and cities such as Dali, Lijiang and Xishuangbanna’s Jinghong have gallery shops where you can see and purchase this special art.
Please note that most countries in Indochina have restrictions on the export of antiques. Thailand does not allow even new Buddha images to leave the country without a licence. You can visit http://www.indochinaodysseytours.com to get more information about this.
In an age of electronic media such as websites, e-mail and cell phones, printed newspaper is still a very popular way to receive news. Spending a dollar at the newsstand everyday adds up though. There are ways to save money on newspapers. An ideal Hindi newspapers website is not the one that gets the most traffic. There are several features that make a Hindi newspapers website worth reading and most importantly, believing its contents. There are plenty of Hindi newspaper websites all over the Internet that cater mainly to the NRIs (Non Resident Indians) who wish to be updated about their motherland. These websites also cater to a range of tech savvy people who do not get enough time to go through the printed version of Hindi newspapers. They can easily access several Hindi newspapers on the website and can read them at their comfort, whenever they find time.
The growth of mass media, and more importantly, newspapers has made this entirely possible. Newspaper marketing, such as Hindi newspaper, reaches and touches all of our lives on a daily basis. Hindi newspapers are one of the oldest forms of mass media and it holds a number of distinct advantages over the other types of media out there. First of all, it can be read by nearly everybody, in almost every type of condition or location. The local newspaper gives more detailed information of a story than other forms of media such as the TV news. The world of technology is changing the newspaper industry. No longer are they advertised at the local grocery market but instead through newspaper online marketing, such as Hindi newspaper.
Hindi newspaper and Hindi news is growing in popularity every day. Nearly every major newspaper now publishes their own version of an online newspaper. The foremost criteria of Hindi newspapers website is that it should confirm any news that it publishes. For example, a Hindi newspaper website recently published a piece related to a topmost young Indian politician involved in a heinous crime. These tactics may draw traffic for a while, but the plethora of negative reviews such sites get, keep people away from the website in future. In this case, the website was banned as it involved a topmost leader of Indian youths. The availability of local news on a global platform is a major advantage. For people living far away from their place, this is the best way to keep in connect with the local events and happenings of their native town/village/city.
No need to spend on elaborate Halloween costumes this season. For this Halloween party game you will need newspapers and blindfolds. If your guests are too easily frightened then this game would not be suitable for your party. As you will know, Moriarty is from the Sherlock Holmes novels and our professor will be re-enacting people’s life and death struggles at Reichenbauch, via role play.
We will not be having Holmes and Moriarty attacking each other with rolled up editions of the Workers Press.
Our game will take place between 2 players with other party members willing them on from the sidelines. Both our players are blindfolded and lie face down on the floor each holding the others left wrist. In their right hand they will hold a rolled up newspaper.
The game starts by one contestant saying “Are you there Moriarty?” The other replies “yes”, and the asking person has 1 attempt to hit him with the newspaper. Our 2nd player has a chance to slither away, before the swipe lands on him. If he is caught by the newspaper, the game is won and he loses. If the strike misses, it is the turn of the 2nd player to ask the question. As each contest ends, others from the party take a turn. It is a rowdy game and quite physical, but in the end, harmless, and it will certainly raise the temperature of your Halloween gathering.
You could now lower the temperature after this physical activity, by playing a more friendlier type of game called The Orange Relay.
The Orange Relay is an old favorite probably because it is brings so much fun and laughter.Your party goers pair up. It is important the pairs are of similar height because they will be holding an orange between each others forehead. On starting the game, pair 1 will walk together for 5 yards and attempt not to drop the orange. After they cross the line, the next couple starts. This continues with all couples taking their turn. The team to drop the orange the fewest times, wins.
Newspaper is one of the convectional and oldest methods which focus on different types of news like state news and world news. Newspaper provides information on various topics, news, articles and contents and lots more to millions at their doorstep. Today across India large number of English magazines, newspaper and journals are flourishing. The paper industry of India has provided various credible papers in English to many readers by providing Today State news and current world news. The English newspaper provides with excellent state news of India to its readers.
The news headlines of the English newspaper can be divided into international news, state news, and regional news. Global news is covered in international papers and national newspaper generally contains national reports and the regional papers contain local news. Today the newspaper industry of India has achieved marvelous success for providing state news of India as it circulates throughout the country. Today state news is very important for a reader to know as it will update them about the current happenings in the state. The English papers are most circulated and published in various regions of India. One can get all information of current happenings in the world and country. The newspapers of India are ideal for those companies who wish to advertize their services and products keeping in mind the strength of readers nationwide. Companies advertise their products and services quite hugely in English newspapers. Newspapers is the best method of communication as it act as medium to create public relations. English newspaper has gained more success because of their high reputation for analysis in depth and also for providing high quality report and latest news. In most English journals and magazines it seen that they provide reports in depth, analysis, surveys and expert views columns and various articles on subjects like celebrity endorsements, interview, book extracts, campaigns, and many more. The English newspaper has thus been greatly popularized and recognized in India.
The various methods of mass communication today in the country are in its state news that is economic, political or social culture. In every corner the electronic and print media is increasing rapidly. The state news of India is communicated to people through different ways like radio, cinema, television, internet, journals or newspaper. The publishing house whether it’s big, small or medium publishes newspaper or news in Hindi, Urdu, English and regional languages. English is an official language in many states of India. Today state news in English is very famous among the high class educated in India. Today in society English has penetrated deeply. These newspapers are therefore growing rapidly in different parts in India. They are providing with entertaining information to many readers with credible news on politics, crime, sports education, business, and lots more. The English news paper broadly publish credible reports from various field like business, fashion, science, Arts, sports, weather trade and many more. This credibility makes them different from others. Therefore we see that there is a lot of demand in India for English newspaper.
Think of this… What if instead of the small and lightweight mobile phone that you work with today, you had to lug around one of those bulky phones that were everywhere in the early 1990’s? You can give a big sigh of relief that it was just a consideration; courtesy of the innovators who expended many years of their lives, designing and implementing this ‘mini-world’ for each and every one of us.
However, this did not come easily. Innovation has to be incorporated into an organizational culture if such revolutionary and landmark achievements are what we are aiming to achieve.
Ideally, a culture is thought of as a set of opinions, attitudes, norms, beliefs, and values, while innovation is the implicit and explicit result of the creativity and knowledge of the individuals working within this organization. However, just coming up with something that is ‘out-of-the box’ doesn’t mean that it will always work – often due to organisational circumstance, because even though an exceptional innovation can be created and brought into reality, there are often many factors which can stop this process – in it’s tracks, keeping many amazing ideas from ever reaching their production stage. With the passing of time, innovation has gone far beyond the concept of simply generating creative ideas; it’s something which can now be seen as the culture of a business. This ‘innovative culture’ can often be the difference between a ‘successful’ and a ‘not-so-successful’ organization. Such a culture works toward developing an attitude of constant learning and advancement in the abilities of the employees. Every organization has its own unique culture which differentiates it from all of the others, and the success or failure of any of these businesses depends largely on how well this culture is managed. An organization with a well managed innovative culture almost always expands more rapidly than an organization without this understanding. In the case of an organization with a poorly managed culture, integrating and connecting with the innovation of a current culture is not a simple endeavour, as this requires careful planning, strategy, consistent motivation and an unflinching drive toward improvement.
Here are a few factors organizations should utilize for the integration of innovation into their culture:
1. Intellectual Property – This is the most important ingredient of an innovative culture. Regularly bringing up ideas in discussions or debates creates a continuous process of refinement, and these brain storming sessions infuse the members with enthusiasm, thereby stimulating the participants to come up with even more ‘never thought of before’ solutions.
2. Technology – Ownership of ‘tech’ and the process of upgrading these technological advancements are both other aspects which need consideration. This structure acts as an interface between knowledge and products, and is therefore responsible for the materialization of concepts from paper into tangible and intangible services.
3. Effective Leadership – Effective leaders are those who, in the organization, continuously integrate and motivate the creative thinking of their peers and subordinates.
4. Proper Communication – Good communication is absolutely necessary for making useful information available, at the right place and at the right time. Miscommunication at the smallest level in an organization can play havoc with even the most brilliant innovative idea.
To be competitive in our changing business world, businesses require their individuals to develop innovative ideas consistently. These innovative ideas can support any organization when they’re traversing difficult phases of business, as organizations can sell off such innovative ideas in a down turn of a business cycle, or take in high profits during a point of large market share.
Copyright (c) 2009 Alan Gillies
A dress or wedding gown is the dress of the bride during the wedding ceremony. Color, style and ceremonial importance of the gown can depend on the religion and culture of the participants of the wedding.
Weddings performed during and immediately after the Middle Ages were often more than a union between two people. It may be a union between two families, two businesses or even two countries. Many weddings are more about politics than love, particularly among the nobility and upper classes. Brides were therefore expected to dress in a way that put them in their families, the most favorable light, because they are not representing only themselves during the ceremony. Brides of wealthy families often had unique colors and fabrics. It was common to see those using bold colors and layers of furs, velvet and silk.
Wedding dresses have traditionally been based on the popular styles of the time. For example, in the 1920’s, wedding dresses were typically short in the front with a longer train in the back and were used for wedding veils style cloche. This tendency to follow current fashions continued until the end of 1940, when it became popular to revert to design long, full skirted reminiscent of the Victorian era. Although there has always been a style that dominates the bridal market for a while, and moves with changes in fashion, a growing number of modern brides are choosing not to follow these trends. This is largely due to non-traditional weddings are not for the first time, and women who marry later in life.
Today, western wedding dresses are usually white, although “white wedding” includes creamy shades like eggshell, ecru and ivory. Philippa of England was actually the princess documented for the first time in history to wear a white wedding gown during a real wedding ceremony, wearing a robe with a white silk cloak lined with ermine and gray squirrel.
For more useful information about wedding dresses, please visit Weddingdressesinlove. It offers cheap wedding dresses, wedding dresses under $100, western wedding dresses and so on.
Even if you have obtained benefit from the use of medical marijuana and are a complete devotee, youll probably have to admit that sometimes youre annoyed by the hostile and stereotypical perceptions you have to put up with from some quarters. Much of this is due to ill-informed prejudice but before blaming others, perhaps it is necessary to look a little more inwardly. Please remember when reading this, that this article does not advise you of the legal position in your state or country and nor does it advocate breaking your local laws.
Its not unusual to see articles that are actually strongly in favor of the use of medical marijuana unwittingly using photos and images that perpetuate some of these questionable views. A typical example might be the otherwise excellent and factual article that contains an image of a typical user who is dressed as if theyve just time-travelled from a late 1960s commune. Another web site containing great information, which made a good job of de-bunking many myths, unfortunately shot itself in the foot by using an appalling photograph of a group of furtive-looking folk sitting around a table in a darkened smoke-filled room, smoking their medical marijuana. It was closer to a scene from Macbeth or a 19th century novels depiction of an opium den than modern reality. Yet another article strongly in favor of US de-criminalization of cannabis for medical use, used a photograph of someone who had all the appearances of being in real-time mental communication with the beings of Planet Zarg at the time the photo was taken.
This careless and self-destructive use of wildly unrepresentative imagery harms the cause of trying to get medical marijuana taken seriously, and also dents the efforts of many responsible people to legitimately differentiate between their medical use and that of recreational users.
The real message
Such images are typically a long way from the reality of many people that use marijuana to ease pain or alleviate otherwise distressing medical symptoms. Theres no doubt that amongst many in society, including much of the conventional medical establishment, some view the use of marijuana in such a capacity as, at best, unproven or controversial and at worst harmful. What is required in this area is rational debate, assessment and clinical evaluation, drawing upon personal experiences with illnesses and pain. In many countries this process is underway and in others, people are trying to get it underway. However, this isnt going to be helped if people using medical marijuana are continually perceived as being merely recreational users in disguise due to the use of negative stereotypical imagery.
The real images
Lets consider, for a second, how it might be possible to use more helpful imagery that members of the public can associate with. First of all, there are large numbers of ordinary everyday folk that are using medical marijuana, not for kicks or to try and discover nirvana, but to bring them relief from pain or other symptoms. The legal complexities dont make it too easy for some individuals to identify themselves, but perhaps a few more photos and articles written around their experiences, showing how ordinary people obtain benefit, just might help bring public perceptions of this issue back to reality.
Its also worth thinking about how we can make better use of the well-intentioned but sometimes equally misdirected comments from some public domain celebrities and big names. The problem is that while many sites and articles mention long lists of names that have spoken in favor of de-criminalization of marijuana, they also frequently just mix-up recreational use and medical marijuana. It doesnt matter how big the name is, so-called endorsements from multi-millionaires along the lines of I enjoy using marijuana to get out of my skull after a busy days filming just arent going to be helpful in the context of winning ordinary hearts and minds on the medical marijuana debate.
So, theres a challenge to start getting some big names that are known supporters of the use of marijuana in a broad social context, to start speaking a little more eloquently and specifically on the subject of medical marijuana. Just think of some of the well-known names that are reported as being potentially in favor, including:
Yes, sure, some of these have been more open than others if youre to believe the reports, but the problem is that many of the reported admissions have been linked to statements that are almost entirely recreational-use oriented. Thats where the challenge comes in to try and persuade some household names to look at the evidence, listen to some cases and then to try and throw their support (assuming they accept the evidence) behind those advocating the use of medical marijuana. So, if anyone knows any big names willing to participate in the medical marijuana debate send them a Tweet!
THE NOVELS OF NAYANTARA SAHGAL AND JHABWALA By DR. RAM SHARMA
According to Wikipedia— Those who emerge from the adolescent stage of personality development with a strong sense of identity are well equipped to face adulthood with confidence and certainty. This sort of unresolved crisis leaves individuals struggling to -find themselves.- They may go on to seek a negative identity, which may involve crime or drugs or the inability to make defining choices about the future. -The basic strength that should develop during adolescence is fidelity, which emerges from a cohesive ego identity-.
Erikson’s own interest in identity began in childhood. Raised Jewish, Erikson appeared very Scandinavian, and felt that he was an outsider of both groups. His later studies of cultural life among the Yurok of northern California and the Sioux of South Dakota helped formalize Erikson’s ideas about identity development and identity crisis. Erikson described those going through an identity crisis as exhibiting confusion.
They often seem to have no idea who or what they are, where they belong or where they want to go. They may withdraw from normal life, not taking action or acting as they usually would at work, in their marriage or at school. They may even turn to negative activities, such as crime or drugs, as a way of dealing with identity crisis. To someone having an identity crisis, it is more acceptable to them to have a negative identity than none at all.
Erikson felt that peers have a strong impact on the development of ego identity during adolescence. He believed that association with negative groups such as cults or fanatics could actually redistrict [sic] the developing ego during this fragile time. The basic strength that Erikson found should develop during adolescence is fidelity, which only emerges from a cohesive ego identity. Fidelity is known to encompass sincerity, genuineness and a sense of duty in our relationships with other people .
” Taking into account the complexity of life, different histories, cultures and different structures of values, the Woman’s Question, despite basic solidarity, needs to be tackled in relation to the socio-cultural situation. The impact of patriarchy on the Indian society varies from the one in the West and therefore, the Indian women novelists have tried to evolve their own stream of feminism grounded in reality. An identity crisis is a time in life when an individual begins to seriously quest for answers about the nature of his or her being and the search for an identity. 20th century developmental psychologist Erik Erikson developed this term, which is used frequently. He used it mostly to apply to the period of transition in the teenage years when kids begin to define what they will do as adults, and what their values are. It is now thought that an identity crisis may occur at any time of life, especially in periods of great transition.
Most teens go through periods of defiance against parental figures and other authorities. Part of this -defining against- caretaking figures is identity crisis. Though kids may make extremely poor choices when they choose to defy parents, they are often participating in a deep exploration of self that will help them determine what they will do and who they will be as they enter adulthood. For parents, watching a child enter the identity crisis stage is often fearful and difficult, since deliberate disobedience to certain standards may be inherently risky. Kids can unfortunately wreck their futures if they push too far away from parental or societal law; they could end up addicted to drugs or parenting children of their own far before they’re ready. “The mother whose self-image is dependent on her children places on those children the responsibility for her own identity, and her involvement in the details of their lives can put great pressure on the children. A child suffers when everything he or she does is extremely important to a parent; this kind of over-involvement can turn even a small problem into a crisis.” A group of Indian women novelists in their inbetwenness, hybridity of thought and multicultural, multi- lingual and multi- religious social dimensions have contextualized the women problems in general and middle- class and upper class women in particular. While the gynocrities think that too many women in too many countries speak the same language of silence, some Indian women novelists
Gone are the days when the women sat at home detached from the outside world and their essential role was only to nurture future generations. With the advent of industrialization and technological development the situation has changed and is gradually changing. In a changing world women slowly started to move outside home by pursuing education in equal terms with males and with this women literacy rate improved tremendously. Today they are coming out of their cocoons and joining hands with men to work shoulder to shoulder along with them. Undoubtedly they have to face difficulties and drawbacks at every step but they are very strong independent minded women and strive every possible way to assert and attain their self-respect. They are capable of sharing all the responsibilities of life. Now they are -supplementary earners-1 for the family. They started earning income almost at per with their male counterparts. But home was still managed exclusively by women as in the past, without any changed. Really it is a challenging task for women to manage both spheres of life, home front and their careers outside home. While the men only concentrate on their careers leaving the responsibilities for their home and children in the hands of their spouse. Women work longer hours and their work is more arduous than men’s. Still men report that -women, like children, eat and do nothing.- 2In modern society women seem to have been divorced from the social recognition which they deserve to acquire but the present mal- adjustment of man- woman relationship has compelled them to lead their life not only under male domination but also to suffer from sex – hungry and irrational young men who treat woman only a commodity of sexual satisfaction and if possible the butt of home sexuality as well as making them suffocated victims of their orthodox family life. [ quote from second sex]—— Personal relation with their parents also make them alienated from their pity and sympathy which result into monotonous behavior of their affectionate parents. Thus woman are compelled to lead their life in the most incongenial atmosphere in which neither the parents nor the husband cooperate with them as they ought to do. After all a woman the so- called house wife has to work hard to maintain family and children and their own status in the present social set up which become cancerous to them.[quote from second sex]———–
“The new woman is assertive and self-willed searching to discover true self.”1 Identity is a state of mind that is granted by our interaction with the fellow beings in the society and also by our acceptance in the society. But “accepting but not accepted; that is the crisis of identity in one’s life, the one thread that run through it all. And a woman’s identity crisis is that where she struggles to achieve as a human being in its full sense against those forces of society who bind her in chains and reject her as a being in comparison to man. Earlier, woman sought her identity in the relations of as a wife, mother and daughter. She accepted this identity willingly. But now time has changed and a woman rejects this relational identity. Now she is able to understand the duplicity of this identity that is imposed on her by society so that she may restrain herself as a being. But now woman wants to stand on her feet as a full human being, equal to man in society. she doesn’t like to know herself as someone’s daughter, wife or mother, rather than she seeks separation from these relations and wants to make her own identity that shows her individuality. She also does not like the support of man in making her own identity. And it is a quest for identity in a woman that she revolts against the traditional image of Indian woman in words and deeds. She is conscious of herself as a being, not as an object. She realises that she is not an appendage of man. A woman is not the “other”. She is not an addition to man. She is an autonomous being, capable of through trial and error; finding her own way to salvation. Therefore, a new modern girl is reluctant to play the conventional role of a sex object and a yoked wife. In a sense, she is the symbol of the emancipated woman, the forerunner of the emerging Indian woman with her liberated womanhood. Thus through self-identity they are independent like man. They have established themselves as autonomous beings, free from the restrictions imposed by society, culture, nature and also free from their own fears and guilt; thus women have reached a stage of understanding the fundamental truth; You have to find it for yourself. Therefore, for gaining her identity, her independence, new women reject the help of men by rejecting them as : “Are you the Lord God that you should rule every widow and every woman? Hands off, they will solve their own problems.”2 Sahgal has presented in her novels modern Indian women’s search for definitions about the self and society, and the relationships that are central to women. She portrays in her novels that her ‘new woman is trying to search for her identity and create for herself a new place in the society. She is conscious of her existence as an individual who has her own rights and wishes. She firmly asserts that these women are the ones who have the guts to raise their voice against it, hence creating awareness for the rest. In fact, these characters are a reflection of their own emotional perplexities and disturbances which they want to come out of and find new horizons of self-esteem and liberation. Lakshmi Sinha rightly believes that ‘Sahgal has taken up the two images- Abla and Shakti’3 of conventional Indian women and forms the images of Sabla in the character of Skinny Jaipal, and Sonali. Nayantara Sahgal, too remarks in the same vein in letter to Jasbir Jain: “I try to create the virtuous women – the modern Sita, if you like my women are strivers and aspirers, towards freedom, towards goodness, toward a compassionate world. There virtue is a quality of heart and mind and spirit, a kind of untouched innocence and integrity, I think there is this quality in the Indian women.”4 So as a writer with feminist concerns, Nayantara Sahgal is a progeny of the tradition wherein power itself is deified as goddess “Shakti” a female symbol. Saghal’s approach towards the issue is holistic and focuses mainly on the question of identity crisis for women. She believes: “Through the rewriting women do, new Sitas and Savitris will arise, stripped of false sanctity and crowned with the human virtue of courage. Then at last we will know why they did what they did, and how their lone, remote struggles can help our search for identity and emancipation.”5 In her essay “Women Persons or Possessions”. Nayantara Sahgal condemns such attitudes which value women as “property’ and discourage individuality in them : “When I heard someone remark we never allow our daughter to go out or I cannot do that, my husband would not like it, it sounded a very peculiar, alien jargon. As if I thought, women were property, not persons.”6 Her statement shows that she is deeply concerned of individuality in women. Therefore, her virtuous fulfill her dream women in her novels. There is something distinct in the women characters of Nayantara Sahgal – something in their social and emotional make up that express itself in their attitude to persons and events. In these women characters, there is a deep longing for self-fulfillment through self-expression. The women characters of her novels are concerned with the fundamental question – the lot of women. They analyze this through the metaphors that deal with the themes of suffering, dominance, urge for companionship. Her novels from A Time to be Happy to Mistaken Identity show her deep concern with the parious state of women in the patriarchal society. Her women from her prototype Maya to the mother figure Renee in Mistaken Identity, rise against the stultifying culture which impedes women’s progress and rebel against all years marks the third and the most mature phase of Sahgal’s career. The women belonging to this phase are strong-willed, emotionally independent women. They refuse to bow down before the strangle hold of men, right from the beginning. They are mistresses of indomitable spirit. And credit goes to Anna Hansen, Sonali, Rose, The Rani of Vijaygarh, Simrit and Sylla for holding the flag of new woman. The thirst for identity is not a problem facing the Indian women only. But European women also face this problem. As we see this thing in case of Anna Hansen, in the novel Plans for Departure. Nayantara Sahgal’s Plans for Departure is the story of Anna Hansen, a Danish girl. Anna is one of the three major female characters in the novel. She is also the protagonist, a person who wants to taste the essence of life in its magnificent as well as mundane aspects. It is her desire for self-realization that she postpones her marriage to an English diplomat, Nicholas. She wants to understand life and sasserts her right to be authentic self. For this purpose, she embarks on travel for one year, visiting Copenhagen, London, Madras, Calcutta and finally landing in Himapur, a fictive village in the Himalayan ranges. She faces no difficulty in getting the job of a secretary-cum-companion to Sir Nitin Basu, a renowned botanist who has come to Himapur during the summer to carry-on his work. Anna’s involvement with the suffragettes makes her aware of both the courage and dedication needed to bring about political change, and the brutal steps those who enforce patriarchal laws are prepared to employ to prevent protest. It is this awareness which initially prompts her to learn more about Indian demands for independence. Her indomitable independence and her sense of freedom provides a striking contrast to the British imperialism and the suffocating political situation of the 1914. She knows her India very well : “Whatever else it (India) needed, it did not need one more religion.”7 Moreover, she has come to India for self-realization – the age-old Indian concept of the ideal of life. First, however, Anna must challenge the social conventions of her own society – where “women are not trained for anything except chastity and self-denial.”8 in order to acquire the independence that is so readily granted to her brothers. Her resultant behavior, which is unconventional in India where she is employed as an assistant for sir Nitin Basu by his sister Didi. “He had naturally been expecting a man, a babu accustomed to clerical work, with a proper if unintelligible command of English. If by some freak mischance his assistant was to be a woman (except that the thought had never crossed his mind) then Didi should have had the sense to engage a Christian widow.”9 Sir, Nitin’s sister Didi, who had originally hired Anna Hansen for her brother, explains in a letter why she will be ‘ideal’ for the job : “I can hardly believe my good fortune in finding her. So ideal, And Europeans are so much more efficient than us. She will be a godsend to you. But apart from that, …. she is the best type of European. I am told she has studied our history and culture at Adyar and is very interested in Hindu doctrines.”10 Where as Stella had been a woman of exquisite ‘ballerina-like beauty, Brewster refers to Anna regularly as ‘Valkyrie’, and Sir Nitin cannot even guess at her age, even her posture is ‘unfeminine’: Everything about Anna’s physical presence seems to indicate to Sir Nitin that her upbringing has not been constrained by convention. Her Self-assurance, particularly her long unchaperoned walks around the hills above Himapur, worries him considerably ‘in spite of Didi reassuring him she would be more than a match for any predatory male she might meet’11. There is a suggestion implicit in his concern that Anna’s free behavior, which goes against the norms of both Indian and European, femininity, would not only endanger her, but reflect on him. Counter to this, Anna’s self-determination is mirrored in her decision to postpone her wedding to Nicholas. Whatever Anna may have achieved through her personal journey towards emancipation, a sympathetic male character appears to be a necessary adjunct to any equal relationship. As beloved, mother, and an equal sharer of social rights and responsibilities, the woman is neither a commodity nor a brainless beauty rather than being judged in terms of male norms, “women need to look at themselves .. as the norm itself.” Aptly remarks Jasbir Jain12 in her attempt to encapsulate the philosophy of feminism. The choice is between woman as a homemaker and woman as a professional. “Only exceptionally talented girls,” rightly says Helen Deutsch, “can carry a surplus of intellect without injuring their affective lives”13. This is true in case of Sonali in the novel Rich Like Us. Sonali, symbolizes Sahgal’s philosophy of active intervention in life. By creating a character like Sonali who is very critical towards established views concerning high caste (Kashmiri, Brahmin) Indian femininity, Sahgal is suggesting new patterns of feminine identity, more attuned to citizenship, professionalism and social responsibility. Sonali is quite different from the stereo type of women found in Indo-English fiction. Her problem is not marital disharmony or male domination. Her problem is how to cope with the hypocrisy, red-tape and corruption that have crept into the Indian Administrative Service? She is intelligent and intellectual independent yet committed to communal good, uncompromisingly conscientious and idealistic. In the wake of Emergency, as she refuses to interpret rules to the advantage of her political bosses, she is transferred without warning, demoted and punished. A revolt against the authoritarianism of the ruling government which has already been smoldering itself into a rage inside her, now becomes an uncontrollable fury and she decides that she can no longer be a party to the widespread conspiracy of silence that is Civil Service. Her mode of Satyagraha is to opt out of the oppressive corrupt resign. So in this in this way Sonali is a different woman from the stereo type image of a subdued and docile Hindu ‘woman’. Therefore she is driven to “frantic competition, to stardom in my studies, to deliverance from suitable “boys” and marriage abroad.”14 Therefore she could avoid the trauma of arranged marriages which in an Indian household is a crucial phenomenon involving social relationship whereas her sister Kiran was happily settled in marriage with a rich businessman to fulfill the aspirations of her parents. Sonali is a conscientious I.A.S. officer working as Joint Secretary in the Ministry of Industry in New Delhi. And since she is the narrator of the major portion of the novel with a backdrop of emergency declared on 26 June, 1975, she articulates the social and moral upheavals that influenced the course of history. “With the unmistakable apparatus of modern authoritarianism all about us, if we could be certain of one fact, it was that everything was not all right.”15 The old bureaucratic tradition to keep its identity intact, never muddling with politics is sadly missing. Sonali’s inheritance was the life philosophy of her father Keshav Ranade, an I.C.S. officer and thus she cannot reconcile with her colleagues who wearing vague smiles and vacant nods on the stairs turn indifferent to the blasts tearing as under the fibers of the institutionalized faiths. Sonali’s uncompromising idealism gets a rude shock when she rejects the license of a dubious multi-national American company project to produce in collaboration in India “a fizzy soft drink product called Happyola”, which was virtually a shady arrangement to import more or less an entire factory in spite of the fact that the government policy did not sanction foreign collaboration in industry in the wake of the economic drive. Mr. Neuman, the visiting representative of the company was assured by the Minister that the proposal would be cleared. That’s why he is taken aback to see the file rejected : he comes to Sonali to clarify if some mistake is made because the minister gave him, “to understand the project would be considered.”16 Neuman tries to impress upon Sonali the need of a good harmless product in a developing country like India in the wake of the expansion of their business in Asia but she, in return, explains to him the government’s policies designed to promote opportunities of self-sufficiency by discouraging “infancy goods, but ours”. Sonali perhaps fails to see through the charges wrought by the march of emergency in the country. The emergency, the novelist observes, “had given all kinds of new twists and turns to policy and the world’s largest democracy was looking like nothing so much as one of the two-bit dictatorships we had loftily looked down upon.”17 What wrong went with her and how man-made bungling unpleasant circumstances flash on her mind with a lucidity of vision that no willful fate conspired to strike her down or dethrone her, rather it was simply the logic of emergency which “had simply caught up with me. During this phase of feverish imagination Sonali feels frighteningly torn within/in a universe where things either “must have meaning or nothing”. The gruesome and grisly images of the victims of emergency including the poor bride burnt to death by her in-laws for want of a suitable dowry rise in her mind, she feels horror stricken to note that she was one of, “three hundred such women burnt during one year in this our capital city.”18 However, Sonali sustains moral courage and strength to face up the situation, grown so blight and ugly, by recollecting a philosopher’s statement that it is not the biological deterministic forces which make man coward, rather “a coward is defined by the deed he has done.”19 She cannot run to any other person to seek advice in these hard times, her father is not alive – the rigidity of idealistic teaching that ‘we are moderate, tolerant people steeped in civilized way strikes hollow. After her resignation, the thirty eight years older Sonali becomes a central force to articulate and share the novelist’s humanistic vision as a woman she can. We look through the unimaginable miseries and terror, let loose on her class by the manifest and unman fest firsts through her propinquity with Rose. She feels concerned with Rose’s predicament in a so unpleasant situation with her husband lying in coma and the stepson Dev denying her allowance of subsistence to render life a miserable experience. ‘After Sonali, Rose in this novel is portrayed a self-assertive, strong women by Sahgal. Both Sonali and Rose are typical Sahgal women. They are independent, assertive self-respecting conscientious and compassionate. Rose, a cockney shop-girl turned an Indian businessman’s foreign bibi who tries her best to make a passage to India and eventually meets her death in the hands of a “youth camp tough” employed by her step son, Dev, one of the small tyrants the Emergency has created. Thus, we have great sympathy with Rose, as she tries best to adjust with her life still she is failed, but she never yields before any thing in her living life. As we see her, that she adjusts to the life of second wife without losing her very sturdy sense of values. She cannot accept living in the same house as Mona, Ram’s first wife, but accepts the Hindu social system for what it is, with resignation. This acceptance comes probably from her realization that she is bound to Ram by an invisible cord which she cannot severe. “The Christian ceremony she’d never had put it in a nutshell. For better or for worse.”20 It is perhaps Rose’s background, which believed in making an honest living, however meager, that makes it impossible for her to understand or digest the subterfuge around her. Dev forging his father’s signature with impunity, his shady deals with the “Power that be.” It is not easy for there to understand why Ram, like a typical Indian, whishes to entertain important guests at five-star hotels. On many occasions she feels out of place, perhaps because she comes from a humble background where one does not hesitate to call a spade a spade. When Ram asks her to lose weight she is indignant : “I’m not joining any Figurate. In two years time I’ll fifty years old.”21 The fact that Rose saves Mona’s life even when her death would have benefited her is certainly to her credit. Though she may have often wished Mona dead, she could never have callously watched it happen. It was Rose’s working class morals that gave her the strength not only to uproot herself initially from suburban London, but also to make a life for herself with dignity in Lahore and later in Delhi through all those trying years when Ram got fascinated with Marcella and later with any lady who took his fancy. Thus we can say that like Sonali, Rose is also the most powerfully etched character in the book. She is the life of the story. She is unforgettable. She believes in the ideal of love. The allusion to Cytherea aptly captures the spirit of Rose eternal (woman) seeker of love. Like Sonali, Rose, Simrit is also a strong new woman in the sense that she dares to come out from the periphery of marriage. This is her awareness that she doesn’t yield before male domination. She is conscious for her identity and to achieve it she leaves her husband even after seventeen years of her marriage. Therefore, Simrit’s walk out is a denunciation of male pretence and a plea to recorchestrating and reinvigorating the entire infrastructure of the society. It is Simrit’s hesitant journey towards identity which is the product of that sensitivity of her which has made her a writer. Yet this sensitivity keeps her aloof from people : her spiritual nourishment comes not from “her fellow man” but from “untouched unspoiled non-human things.”22 This shrinking from everyday life makes her so non-assertive that she complies in Som’s taking over her life, she feels herself, a manifestation of the mand-wife archetype characteristic of this patriarchal enclosure. And it is Simrit’s rebelliousness, her willingness to change helps her in releasing her from the hold of the past; the old world where she had watched injustice prevail on the basis of gender and class makes way for a new one, where the possibilities of equality and opportunities are promised to all, irrespective of class, caste or gender. Therefore, she accepts divorce to make free from her wealthy business husband and walks out on her husband to carve out her own destiny. How long could she compromise her self-respect? And why? Whereas the other women are destroyed because they fail in their quest; but Raj’s entry into her life change Simrit’s course, turning it towards self-realization instead. His belief that living is “acquaintance with things in the raw… and with human beings at all levels”23 gradually penetrates into her and propels her towards taking action before it is too late. She leaves Som and moves else where with her children, learning to cope with things on her own. Her divorce, then is her first step towards self-discovery, for she has managed to break out of the enclosure; her next step is her learning to cope with things on her own through reaching out to Raj and fulfilling her own sexuality. Ra thus becomes an exemplar of what Pratt calls the archetypal “green world lover”24 and The Day in Shadow a ‘double marriage plot’ like Middle March25 notably, he is a Christian and thus free of traditional stereotyping. Thus, we can say that Simrit like an aware woman is able to break free of the patriarchal enclosure and come to terms with herself. Her decision to remarry is a sign not of continuing subjugation but of social and sexual emancipation that leads to autonomy and self-hood. Her days “could be entirely hers”, and promise unending adventure.26 In the same novel there is a character named Pixie who is exploited by this materialistic world. But when awakening takes place in her heart she breaks the lustful exploitation of male chauvinism which is an act of boldness and moral courage and gives way to her self realization and individuality. Both educated and uneducated women have been presented as rebels with all their limitations, depending upon their position, placing and situation. This is true in case of the Rani of Vijaygarh in Mistaken Identity who lives a neglected and humiliated life of the unwarranted wife of the king till she finds an ardent lover in Yusuf, a communist. Standing straight she faces her son Bhusan to tell him that she cares more for her personal interest than the stereotyped role of the royal wife. Though, she is married at an early age and her “knowledge depended on the slit between her carriage curtains”27. She takes nine long years to give birth to Bhushan. She completely withdraws from her husband’s life when he marries for the third time. Ultimately, she leaves her husband’s house and marries her communist Muslim lover Yusuf but before doing that she reduces the power of her husband and son to nothingness. All this is done by the uneducated Rani who was one of the twins who “were both married to father and as twin brides had refused to be separated. Then one of them had died. Which one, when, of what, the chronicle did not say. whoever wrote it skipped the details. What do flies die of? A swat, most likely. And they don’t have names”28 this explains the kind of anonymous she has undergone – without a name and without any power. But in due course of time she change the whole pattern. Betrothed at five and married at thirteen, she had been confined within the walls of her house. No body cared to know whether she wanted to marry or not, because like other women of her time she was “all tongue and no script”29. She goes on different pilgrimages to be blessed with a son. Bhushan’s statement that Mother “knows marriage from the Chamber of horrors it is” further confirm the horrifying situation she is in, but her laughing “throwing caution and control to the winds her head flung back, that mass of hair unwinding in coils”30 and “raving for more life to live”31 shows her vitality and courage. The same desire to break the restricting social structure is seen in the young Muslim girl Razia who catches Bhushan’s attention. Razia, aware of Bhushan’s interests, instigates passionate but dangerous meetings between classes at her school. Their illicit liasions spark off murderous riots when they are discovered together, and prompts the shameful departure of Razia’s family from Vijaygarh. Bhushan spends years in anguish searching for his lost love only to have illusions shattered when he meets with the emancipated Razia years later in a Bombay hotel. In the same novel Sylla is also presented also as a young Parsi woman with an independent and Westernised outlook. She is flamboyant and fiercely independent. Her appearance, her very English ways, set her apart from the common Indian women. ‘She wears a frock, swims in a bathing costume and has bobbed hair’.32 She is a typical inhabitant of upper class Bombay. This world of Sylla’s was the kind of life Sahgal admits to have experience when she lived in Bombay after marriage. Sylla and her world have evidently grown out of this personal experience. Educated in England and Switzerland, Sylla was brought up by her grandmother who has herself been educated in France. This lady has single-handedly raised. When she decides to marry she opts for the lawyer Nausar, and not Bhushan perhaps because Nausar could give her what her grandmother had hopped for her. Ironically enough, the whole purpose of Sylla’s education abroad, the reason why she had been encouraged to be free was because her grandmother wanted her to have a happy and successful marriage. During Bhushan’s three years in jail, when Sylla had kindly provided him with a lawyer, she had also the time and the perspective to see why she could not commit herself forever to Bhushan. Though she found his life endearing, she admits that every woman is looking for a man with an ambition in life. A man obsessed with his past and with no dreams of a future was not for her. And this act of her shows her that she is a strong woman, who is conscious of her identity in marriage or in relations. Besides these women, in This Time of Morning, Nita and Rashmi who are also in process of making their own identity in a male dominated society by rejecting traditional taboos. As Rashmi finds emancipation from her shattered matrimonial bond with Dalip by drifting towards Neil. Nita is also conscious for her identity. As the new found emancipation that has come Nita’s way changes her whole mental out look and turns her against the traditional idea of arranged marriages. Because she wants to stand on her own feet and enjoys her individuality, self-expression and self-dependence. Nita also has a thirst to do something and does not want to be bound by nuptial knots as yet. Later, her parents do allow her to take up a job but for very different reasons. Kalyan, a Minister had offered the job, and they simply “did not have the heart to refuse”33 a Minister’s after. But Nita looks for something more than merely a job, strives for independence and individual identity. It is Nita’s longing for freedom and individuality that urges to make extra pre-marital affair with Kalyan and a sense of freeness from taking part in marriage. She tells him : “You gave me the freedom to be myself. I had never had that before. I’d never have known it but for you,” and she finally admits before him’: “I have been so happy with you.”34 Thus in the chapter Identity Crisis Sahgal’s women reaffirm her positive message that women can take steps to transform their own lives, and that with courage and determination they can challenge the patriarchal codes which constrict them.
Jhabvala’s novels are all conceived in irony.Irony runs through from first to the last novel.Infact ,the setting of the novel is in itself ironical.Eight of her twelve novels up to -Heat and Dust'(1975) which we are discussing here are set in India.In 1976 she had left India for good and settled in America where she wrote four novels: -In Search of Love and Beauty'(1983), -ThreeContinents'(1987), -Poet and Dancer'(1993 ),and -Shards of Memory'(1995).They are absolutely set in America but the glimpses of her Indian experiences continue through out these four novels.In her earlier eight novels the society of Delhi is almost reflected.During her stay in Delhi she had seen a number of social groups and individuals.In her first novel -ToWhom She Will’the actions are performed by the social groups and individuals represented by the Rai Bahadur,Vazir Dayal Mathur and Suri .In her next novel -The Nature ofPassion’ the setting ofliving style is changeable.Ironically Jhabvala marks the changeable style of Lalaji when he stepped in Delhi ,his financial condition was very miserable.Later he becomes a reputed personality in Delhi.First his room was decorated with -whitewashed walls and cracked cement floors,but now it shines with English furniture ,silk curtains and lampshades,novelity cigar boxes and coloured boxes.-The changing pattern of Lalaji’s life becomes ironical and is followed by Har Dayal in her next novel -Esmond in India’.Her fourth novel” -Ths Householder’ deals with the life of a lower middle class individuals in urban setting.It recalls India’s ancient past when Indians believed in Nirvana and throws a light on the exploitation of the innocent people such as Prem,a college lecturer in a private Delhi college is exploited by Mr. Khanna and Mr. Seigal.Her fifth novel -Get Ready for Battle’ opens with the scene of a wet party at the post New Delhi house of Gulzari Lal.Jhabvala satirizes the world of high class and fashionable social life of Delhi.Toto Saxena and his wife Ushi,Iqqi Singh and Premola,Pitu and Shila,Chuchu ,Bhat and Kimi,Bablu and Bibi belong to this world of high class.Gulzari Lal and Mrs. Bhatnagar are in the air. IN the sixth novel -A Backward Place’Jhabvala dominates the dominates scene of an Indian family. Irony is that a European girl named Judy performs her duty well and always attempts her best to sustain the marriage as well.She has to go out of the house for running her family,while her Indian husband always losts in his dreams and plans to be a hero like Kishan Kumar.The actions of other characters are domestic.Jhabvala’s best novels -A New Dominion’ is divided into three parts.The setting of the first part is in Delhi.It opens with Lee’s entrance to India.The western characters like Margarret,Evie,Miss Charlotte and Raymond,a tourist also appear. Later on Indian characters like Asha,Gopi,Rao Sahib,Swami and Banubai are introduced in second part.Then the scene of the novel shifts to Banaras.At last the scene of the novel shifts of Maupur in Rajasthan,Maupur is Asha, a middle aged princess’s native place.With the passing of the time all the leading characters such as Asha,Gopi,Raymond and Lee shifts to Maupur.In this way the whole novel is set in Delhi ,Banaras and Maupur in RAasthan.The setting of this novel becomes interesting because it has similarity with E.M.Forester’s -A Passage to India’ which is divided into three parts titles -Mosque-, -Caves- and -Delhi-. Her awarded novel -Heat and Dust’ comes at the nd of Phase Two and also deals with two paralled stories of British India as embodied in Olivia’s story and of Post-Independence India as reflected in the young narrator’s peregrinations and experiences are discussed in it. The setting of this novel is skillfully managed and reveals Jhabvala’s personal experiences: negative and positive or love and hate relationships with India.
A close study of the characters of Jhabvala -s novels reveals irony on their parts.That’s why ,her characters are called types or worse skill,stereotypes but in Foresterian terms are only -flat’ characters because they donot show evidence of growing up or rounding of their angularities as the fictional drama requires.In -T o whom She will’ Amrita and Hari Sahani are very ironical characters who in the beginning of the novel,always remain ready to devote everything for their love but later on they willingly get separation from each other and search their separate partners.In -The Nature of Passion’Jhabvala ironically attacks on Lala Narayan Das (Lalaji) and his Samadhi,Dev Raj’s quest for money and power for which they go against the social and moral values and have been -counted among the richest men in Delhi.(NP) Like Lalaji Har Dayal in -Esmond In India’believes in polishing his life and feels proud of having foreign he wore kurta payjama or a dhoti.Now he wears English suits,eats English style and lives English style even at home.He is a culture vulture.In -The Householder’Prem is the best example of the irony of character.He is a college lecture in a private Delhi college run by Mr.Khanna. In spite of being educated he is shown an imperfect educated teacher for drawing the poor salary of Rs.175.He demands more but he is exploited.In -Get Ready for Battle’ Gulzari Lal is the representative of those who regard money their God. In spite of having impressive personality and good social backgrounds in society he is not regarded a good person by his family.His wife,Sarla Devi could not bear his condemnable life so she left him ten years ago.She gets success in making his image good in the eye of society not in the eye of his family.It is irony on his part .As a European writer Jhabvala portrays the European characters in her novels and tries to reveal her relationship with east west through these characters.In this way in her novels the east -west encounter is frequently seen and becomes an important theme of her novels.In -A Backward Place’ Judy is a European character who attracts towards Bal for his B.A. and good face looking and comes to India with him.The irony is seen when she comes to know that Bal does nothing but is a dreamer.Etta is a European character who is in search of husbands.Rich men are her weakness but this weakness becomes a great irony on her part when she falls in love with poor Bal who is himself dependent on her wife’s earnings.In -A New Dominion’Jhabvala ironically makes a fine fusion of Indian and western characters.Asha,a middle aged princess,Gopi, a student ,Rao Sahib, a former ruler and politician,Swami, a spiritual guide,Banubai,a prophetess,Bulbul,Asha’s maid,Bob, a go ahead young man are Indian characters.Raymond, a tourist, Lee, Margaret and Evie have just arrived India on a spiritual quest.Indian spirituality attracts them but becomes their misfortune as they come under the impact of crooked Swami. In her eight novel -Heat and Dust’ Douglas and his wife Olivia,Marcia,his sister, the Nawab, the nephew Karim,Malashri Lal,Beta Crawford,Dr.Saunders,Major Minnes,Marwar Prince and Dr. Gopal are major and minor characters.Jhabvala’s use of ambiguity and irony invests her character with multiple level of meaning and implication. Olivia is a tragic figure and her tragedy saves her from being a stereotype character.Lady Ram Prasad and Tarla Mathur in -To Whom She Will’Mrs. Bhatnagar and Mrs.Kaul in -Get Ready for Battle’ and Mrs.Das in -A Backward Place’ are the stereotype committee women who appear like monstrous creatures. Swamis of the early phase of her novels are the symbols of evil and spinister. The Lalajis,the Har Dayals,the Bhatnagars,the Khannas and the Kauls’ main concern is to make a world of money by using their meanness, selfishness, corrupt ideas and lust for sex.Jhabvala aims at throwing a light on the corrupt , the wealthy, the hypocritical and the exploiters by portraying the ironical characters.
While discussing the domestic problems and individuals consciousness among her female characters such as Amrita,Nimmi,Niddi,Chandra and Kanta Jhabvala’s ironic method comes close to Jane Austen and becomes an interesting matter for us to know where the characters of Jane Austen grow out of their natural reactions to the situations and circumstances,Jhabvala goes so much further in stripping her characters of not affections, but ideals,ambitions, hopes and duties.In Austen’s novels the theme of husband hunting goes on but Jhabvala ,in her novels, stresse on wife hunting as on husband hunting.In this case parents also play an important part. In -Pride and Prejudice’ Mrs.Bennet always appears in search of suitable husbands for her younger daughters.In Jhabvala’s -To Whom She Will’Hari appears searching the wife and falls in love with Amrita. Amrita also dreams of marrying him and goes against her family.In this reference she does not hesitate in breaking the tradition of arranged marriage by marrying a man of her own choice and going out,work. This situation becomes ironical on their part because Hari belongs to a different community, a different world.That’s why,he cannot be a suitable husband for Amrita in the opinion of her mother,Radha who herself married to a man out of her world.
Here Jhabvala draws our attention on the social consciousness based on caste, class, status and race barriers while in love they have no place. Amrita’s mother also warns Hari not to have connection with her daughter.Hari follows her and leaves the idea of marrying with her daughter.The result comes out that he again starts searching the wife.Above all he cannot resist family pressure and agrees to marry Sushila Anand, a girl of her mother’s choice.Jhabvala’s characters believe in comparing the horoscopes of boy and girl for marriage and considering family status,caste ,relative affluence and future prospects while Jane Austen’s characters believe in free love. Amrita’s romance with Hari resembles Austen’s Lady Catherine.Jhabvala’s characters portrayals of Krishna Sen Gupta and Amrita in -To Whom She Will’Viddi and Kanta in -The Nature of Passion’Sudhir Banerjee in -A Backward Place’ Ram Nath in -Esmond in India’ Raymond,Asha and Gopi in -A New Dominion’ and Major Minnes in -Heat and Dust’ bring Austen’s Fanny Dashwood or Fanny Burney’s young Mr.Brangthton of Evelina, Henry Tilney,Mr.Darcy,Mr. Knightley,Captain Wentworth,Elizabeth Bennet,etc.to mind.Jhabvala -s novels resemble not only in directing a good deal of satire at marriage in middle class society but also in being a novel about growing up. Haydn Moore Williams has pointed out that Ruth Prawer Jhabvala -Like her literary ancestor,Jane Austen likes to develop plots in which romantic love is less than adequate.-8
Jhabvala’s early novels have the impact of Jane Austen’s ironic detachment.Her habit of ironic undercutting within a sentence frequently in such novels as -The Householder’, -The Nature of Passion’, -To Whom She Will’ and -Get Ready for Battle’ brings Jane Austen to mind. It -Get Ready for Battle’ an Indian party is arranged in which many people come with their wives and enjoy the party. Jhabvala in the style of Jane Austen, describes the manners of wives -who sat in a semi circle at one end of the room and sipped pine apple juice.-in -To Whom She Will’ Krishna’s wit and good sense of voice recalls Austen’s Henry Tilney (Northanger Abbey) and the angry activity of Phuphiji,Lalaji’s widowed sister reminds of Mrs. Norris or Sir Thomas Bertram in Austen’s -Mansfield Park’.In -Esmond in India’ Ram Nath resembles Mr. Bennet in -Pride and Prejudice’ and its heroine Shakuntla is handsome,clever and rich but her manners resemble the heroine of Austen’s novel -Emma’.Jhabvala’s main characters are generally lovers, victims and self-deceiving while Austen’s characters are called very complex by different critics. In this case Ron Shepherd has pointed out that:
Jhabvala -s ironic method is similarly double directed so
as to constitute a critique of the aberrant individual, and
more importantly,of the rigidly coercive society.But
Jhabvala’s fiction slso goes beyond a concern with
conformity or unconformity, with pride or prejudice or
with sense or sensibility, those values closely associated
with position and class.9
In the connection of ironic mode Ruth Prawer Jhabvala is called -an Indian Austen.-10 In this reference she presents her views in an interview with Ram Agarwal in 1974:
I haven’t consciously modeled myself on anyone.
Unconsciously (or does one say sub consciously?)
more or less on every writer I have loved and admired.
Any writer who had deeplythrilled me and there have
been many, many has influenced me The reasonal used
to be compared to (Jane Austen) is because my earlier
books dealt with the same sort of society as hers did.i.e.,
the leisured middle classes,mostly concerned with eating
and marrying.Also perhaps my way of looking at thinks
may have been somewhat similar to hers a sort of ironic
detachment? May be Anyway ,that was in my earlier books.11
It is significant to note that Jhabvala’s novels have been concerned with the double edged irony while describing life in the Indian princely states in the nineteenth century.She comes close to Forester and J.R. Ackerley whose novels present the description of Indian princely states .The description of Dewas in Forester’s -The Hill of Devi’ and of Chhatarpur (renamed Chhokrapur in the book)in J.R. Ackerely’s -Hindoo Holiday’ is very remarkable and is enough to tell Indian culture and Indian history.After the publication of -Heat and Dust’ in an interview with Yolanta Maji Ruth Prawer JHabvala herself commented that -the people who used to go furthest into India, who understood it best and become closet to it,were English homosexuals like E.M. Forest and Joe Ackerley, because their emotions were involved ,even their passions.-12
It was Forster’s -A Passage to India’ that moved Jhabvala towards India and developed a desire in her to visit India.Her marriage to an Indian was a golden opportunity for her.It is an irony on her part that decided to leave India and settled in America in1976.In her earlier years in India she felt heavenly pleasure \on earth and described the beauty and culture of India in her writings.During writing her novels the impact of Forster -A Passage to India’ continued in her mind.His sixth novel -A Backward Place’ is the best example.We can quote some lines from this novel:
-this was not Europe.The houses,true enough,were built
from jazy pictures in European or American magazines,but
the surrounding landscape was not really consonant with
anything those magazines might know of.Vast barren
spaces, full of dust and bits of litter,flowed around and
between the smart new hoses,there was not a tree in slight,
and the only growth to spring spontaneously out of this soil
was, here and there, little huts patched together out of mud
and old boards and pieces of sacking. 7(BP)
]The lines present a beautiful Indian landscape in Forstian style.Standing on Etta’s balcolony Judy enjoys the beauty of Indian landscape and notices Etta’s wonderful flat modeled on European lines and the general Indian landscape.The contrast between European picture and Indian picture is a wonderful example of Jhabvala’s artistic skill.This Forstian irony runs through her fiction.In her next novels -A New Dominion’and -Heat and Dust’ the Indian sky is seen as a strong symbol but in Forster’s -A Passage to India’ this sky appears as the snake.To prove it the lines may be quoted from -A New Dominion’:
Over the hutments over the snake holes, over the
flat barren landscape stretched the evening sky.100(ND)
The above passage displays the double edged irony that proves that no writer can write accurately about India without reading Forster’s -A Passage to India’.It is true that Jhabvala followed Forstian style but the ideas presented in her novels are her own.
A plenty use of verbal irony is frequently seen in Jhabvala’s novels. In this connection we can mark the dialogues that run between Prem and Mr. Khanna, Prem comes to request Mr. Khanna to raise his poor salary so that he may welcome his conceived first child into this world when it is born.He finds Mr. Khanna taking his breakfast on his dining table.The conversation between them is very comic and full of verbal irony.Mr.Khanna: – You see me enjoying my breakfast-and adds -It is very important to start the day with a good breakfast.- Prem thinks of -Sohan Lal eating his first humble meal perched on a little bench in the staff room- and further says ,-Mr. Sohan Lal lives in Mehrali he has to leave his house at six o’clock in the morning,without any food.-Mr. Khanna sympathetically says , -you should always take plenty of salt,with your food.It quickens the energies and adds a spoonful of salt taken in a glass of warm water is also very good for reflecting liquid strength lost through too much perspiration you see,in our climate we must take great care of the body.-14-15(H)
Mr. Khanna goes for the increment in his poor salary but forgets why he has come and talks of breakfast. In -Heat and Dust’ a fine example of verbal irony can be noticed in the dialogues of Harry and Olivia during the admiration of Olivia husband, Douglas.
Harry I like your husband.
Olivia Oh do you?-So do L .16(HD)
On the forgoing discussion it can be concluded that Ruth Prawer Jhabvala’s irony is sharp, gentle and sympathetic and it also arises from the ridiculous situations which are produced by the comic and humourous dialogues of her characters. She brings out the inconsistencies of her characters and their actions by her ironical treatment are humane and gentle not bitter. REFERENCES :
1.Seshadri Vijaya Lakshmi, The New Women in Indian English women Writers since the 1970s, New Delhi – B.R. Publishing Corporation, p.12. 2.Vivekananda, My Indian the India Eternal Kolkata, The R.K. Mission Institute of Culture, 1998, p. 76. 3.Lakshmi Sinha : Nayantara Sahgal’s Novels : A Critical Study, Patna : Janaki Prakashan, 1999. 4.Quoted by Jasbir Jain in Nayantara Sahgal 1978, New Delhi, Arnold Heinemann. 5.Arora, Neena, Nayantara Sahgal and Doris Lessing, New Delhi : Prestige Books, 1991. 6.Nayantara Sahgal, Women : Persons or Possessions”, The Hindustan Times – Sunday Magazine, p.68. 7.Ibid, p.51. 8.Ibid, p.60. 9.Ibid, p.13. 10. Ibid, p.18. 11. Ibid, p.107. 12. Jasbir Jain, “The Feminist Perspective : The Indian Situation and its Literary Manifestations,” in Other English Essays on Commonwealth Writing. 13. Helen Deutsch, The Psychology of Women : A Psychoanalytic Interpretation, Vol. I. Girlhood 1944; reprint. New York: Bantam, 1973, p.124. 14. Ibid, p.58. 15. Ibid, p.21. 16. Ibid, p.25. 17. Ibid, p.26. 18. Ibid. 19. Ibid, p.31. 20. Nayantara Sahgal, Rich Like Us, Harper Collins Publishers India, 1999, p.65. 21. Ibid, p.209. 22. Nayantara Sahgal, The Day in Shadow, Delhi : Vikas, 1971, p.34. 23. Ibid. 24. Annis Pratt, Achetypal Patterns in Women’s Fiction, Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1981. p.22. 25. Nayantara Sahgal, The Day in Shadow Delhi : Vikas, 1971, p.44. 26. Ibid, p.131. 27. Nayantara Sahgal, Mistaken Identity London : Heinemann, 1988, p.30. 28. Ibid, p.75. 29. Ibid, p.156. 30. Ibid, p.38. 31. Ibid, p.158. 32. Ibid, p.75. 33. Ibid, p.146. 34. Ibid, p.219-220.
35. Gooneratne,Yasmine: Silence, Exile and Cunning: The Fiction of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala,Orient Longman, Hyderabad,1983,p.16
36.Shahane,Vasant A : Ruth Prawer Jhabvala ,Arnold Heinemann,New Delhi,1976,p.84
37.Gooneratne ,Yasmine : Silence,Exile and Cunning : The Fiction of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala,Orient Longman,Hyderabad,1983,p.24
38.Hadyn Moore, Williams : The Fiction of Ruth Prawer Jhabvala,Writers Workshop,1973,p.14
Teach others by your example.
You can imagine the shock when you open a newspaper particularly designed for yourself. How happy we are if the advertisement in the newspaper is the exact commodity information of our individual needs. this kind of age has arrived: personalized newspaper offers you the most accurate information.Bad Usual Practices that Give Rise to Deformer to
IFRA 2009 Exhibition is being held in Vienna and the personalized newspaper is on display in Oc stand. What Are Offerred? wedding dress this project is named as Niiu, also launched a personalized newspaper’s implementation, a big step has made towards our years of dream. What is Most Welcomed Gifts for PRs? links of london jewellery !
People who subscribed Niiu, can create their own newspaper online, they can select themes they are interested in from newspapers available of regional national and international, They can even choose contents of SNS sites such as Facebook and Twitter. assembling all these materials into a newspaper, and it will be mailed to subscribers’ homes next day after printing. This daily newspaper is a 24-page color newspaper, Subscriber enter Niiu.de before the day at two o ‘clock in the afternoon and to choose the contents of tomorrow’s newspaper. and the paper will be printed by night and delivered to the subscribers. To Appreciate the Most Expensive ugg boots uk in the Season of Autumn
The Oc announced in the meeting place, at the same time, The first day’s Niiu personalization newspaper started operation in Berlin. Printting personal internet information on pages, can attract youg people to read. Besides attract the young people to return to the newspaper, the industry thinks Niiu could bring more business opportunities for local advertising, Individualized newspapers, and inevitable individualized ads will produce high-beneficial advertising revenues.
In addition, there should also be quite wisdom to let readers choose contents. while it is not sure the select ways of the topics. however, depend on its system concept, readers’ operation should not be too complicated, so as to avoid the barriers of using.
People today are always concerned about getting the latest news immediately. As the science and technology has developed. Many new machines and device are invented to deliver the different types of news to the people immediately. People take some time from their busy schedule to know about the latest news. And now the technology has brought latest world news in your drawing room. Our Indian Media is always active and they try to explore different kinds of news and deliver it to the citizens. There are many modes which help our citizens to know about Indian news especially the Indian political news.
Most of the people have the habit of reading newspaper to know about the various types of news. The newspapers give maximum details about different types of news. Most of the newspaper has separate pages to provide news like Latest Indian News Headlines, sports news, entertainment news, international news etc. sometimes the newspaper provide the news for particular people. As some people are only concerned about the particular news like sports news so they always prefer the newspaper which contains all the details about the latest news of sports. By just paying small amount people can purchase the news paper and read it when they are free. All the newspapers are concerned in publishing all the type of news of recent day to day happening.
We have lots of news channel in India who try to deliver all the latest news about the happening. The reporter of these channels presents detailed news about all the happening. Some particular channel provides the detailed news about India only. In these channel, the people can watch the news with video clippings. The important news about India and world is shown as breaking news and is being flashed frequently so there is no issue of missing any news details. As the journalism market has developed, there is always competition among these channels to provide the latest world news.
The political situation in India is the manager of other things. In India, the political condition is always very complex. That is the reason most of the Indian people are always worried about the Indian Political news. There are a many types of medium present in India to convey the Indian Political news. As the political situation is changing, news channels and newspapers deliver the latest news about the comment and activities of political leader. It is important that the people know about the latest world news of political situation.
Which mass medium has brought the revolution by spreading awareness about the evils of society? Everyone knows the answer that is newspapers, an omnipresent medium that have wined the trust of millions of readers. The reliability of newspaper is main factor behind its sustainability as first choice of marketers for advertising. This medium gives you complete control on your budget by bestowing the assorted options for advertising.
The world of newspaper advertising is versatile as it presents multiple options before you in terms of budget, format of ad and media planning. You will get the complete assurance of success if you strategically consider on these three factors. There are mainly four formats are in use for newspaper advertising. Text, classified, Display Classified and display are widely used formats of newspapers ad. Classified ads in newspaper are cost effective way of receiving the highest response of target audience. Display ads require some extra budget but ensure best return on investment. You can give some relaxation in your expenditure if you apply classified display format.
Newspaper is regarded as most effective medium for advertising. There are many reasons that have contributed in nurturing this notion in regard of newspapers. Firstly, this gigantic mass medium ensures complete return on investment. Secondly, it is highly permeated and reaches in those areas where other medium cannot reach. Besides them, there are many factors that contribute in gaining the faith of marketers in this medium. Its authenticity is unsurpassed so the newspaper advertisement works as the direct call to action. Readers do not have to think twice and thrice before taking the action as readers have complete faith on the information given in newspapers. To invest in newspaper advertising is highly affordable in comparison to investing in other medium. Beside this, you have option to show or creativity by display advertising or to restrict it by publishing text and classified ad in newspaper.
There many people who hesitate to advertise in newspaper even after aware about the significance of this medium. If you are one of them then do not need to hesitate anymore as newspaper ad can be booked online. You will get benefited from multiple offers and packages if you book newspaper ad online. It is hassle free and affordable method of newspaper ad booking.
So, book your ad online in newspaper whenever you want to advertise your services and products without any extra investment.
Have a motorcycle that you would like to sell in order to make room for a new one? Need to get rid of some extra inventory that your dealership has been holding on to for some time now? Print newspapers and online motorcycle classifieds are two options that can help you sell your used motorcycles quickly.
The biggest advantage with newspapers is that they have been circulating among neighborhoods for as long as I can remember, so there is a long-standing reputation of trust and dependability with them. This means that many potential buyers will be looking through the ads when they get their papers, so your potential selling opportunity is increased.
The one potential problem is that it can get somewhat costly if you want to place an ad in the newspaper because of high advertising rates. Why does it cost so much to place an ad in the newspaper? One reason that it can be costly is because the expenses involved in printing a newspaper are on the rise, so newspaper printing companies have to charge enough to cover those expenses.
You can also place ads in online motorcycle classifieds if you need to get rid of some of your excess inventory. Online motorcycle classifieds are a great option for selling your used motorcycles or motorcycle inventory.
One advantage is that online motorcycle classifieds cost less than newspaper ads, and sometimes they carry no cost at all. There are a lot of free classified sources out there, but be careful as they may not necessarily be the most reliable. An ad can be free, but if there is no dependable service to back it up, then you’re simply wasting your time.
Online motorcycle classifieds also carry the huge benefit of being able to target a much larger audience so you get exposure to more potential buyers. This would not be possible with newspaper ads because your limited to a smaller, but more targeted audience in your area.
Both of the options discussed here are effective solutions for selling your used motorcycles. If you’ve got something to sell, it would be well worth your time to pursue either your local newspaper ads or online motorcycle classifieds.
A lot of industries advertise, but I wonder a lot if some of them know why are they doing it?? Take the little time to look around this week, as you do your window shopping or Grocery shopping or you send your children for activity classes like dancing, painting etc. and anything else you do.
Do you know who is advertising locally, and how? If you really observe little, you’ll see some advertising done on the road side footpath, banners or in Newspaper etc. The advertisement done by the advertiser will not probably effective unless he has done is attractive and it is read by the maximum people. Newspaper advertising is very effective way of advertising.
There should be top three reasons to advertise i.e. Awareness, Image/Icon and Differentiation. The most important reason to advertise is Awareness. Developing awareness of your products and services through advertisement is very important. As if people dont know who you are, and at you do or what services you provide then you wont get a good business. You have advertised to let people know that you are there to provide them desired services. Image/Icon makes you different from the other sellers or service providers. You need to motivate people to come to you by advertising effectively. People want to purchase products or hire services of the well known companies or those who are popular in their areas.
There are several modes of advertising; out of that Newspaper advertising is the best way to advertise. As Newspaper is very popular media to reach to the masses and classes. The best way to go for Newspaper advertising or Newspaper Classified is through Newspaper Advertising Agency. Approaching to Newspaper Advertising Agency is the easiest way to get guidance and get the advertising done. Such agencies will understand the business in detail and suggest you the best advertising options and make a creative design for you and Display ads in newspaper. Right from understanding your business to publishing your advertisement in newspaper agencies helps you in every step. You have to make sure that, the design of advertisement created by the agency is confirmed and agreed by you. The matter you wanted convey to the audience is conveyed properly and in short and simple language. The design is attractive. Many agencies have their own website from which they do the Newspaper ads booking online. You just have to visit their website and click few options and in just fraction of a second you get the Newspaper Ads booking or Newspaper Ads booking options. Just click on that and provide the information asked on the company web page, provide the date and the matter and pay online.
Newspaper classified advertising is very common form of advertising. Normally the charges for such form of adverting are charged for by the line and according to columns. People read newspaper regularly as because of their busy schedule they dont find much time to understand who is providing the products and services desired by them.
There are many forms of advertising, but perhaps the most widely recognized is newspaper ads. Newspapers have been around for a very long time and have cornered the market for advertising. When you think of advertising, you likely think of a boxed ad tucked into a newspaper page somewhere. Its time to ask yourself if having that little boxed ad somewhere in the pages of the newspaper is worth the finances it takes to have it there, or if there is a way to have more effective and less expensive advertising that may work a little harder for you.
There is promotional pens are a wonderful form of advertising that doesnt get thrown out at the end of each day. Promotional pens have staying power they stay around for quite a while, most often for a few months, which keeps your advertising in the sights of your clients and potential clients each day.
Newspaper ads can get lost in the pages there are countless ads each day in every newspaper around the world. How are people to decipher your ad from the rest yes, its true, there are production artists who are fabulous at creating ads that will pop from the page, but that ad only lasts for as long as you pay for it to be in the paper and for considerably more money than promotional pens cost.
Promotional pens are inexpensive and your company name and logo as well as your information or whatever information you want, is emblazoned on the pen for its life span. People dont throw away working pens they keep them, this translates to your company name being in the hands of people daily for weeks, perhaps even months on end. Considering the cost of one pen thats great advertising for the money you spend. Purchasing a thousand promotional pens for the cost of one decent sized ad in the newspaper and you have great advertising that you can target to the market that is interested in your business, products and services.
Some companies even use promotional pens as business cards instead of the standard business card its unique and original, and it ensures that the business card gets seen by a new client again, quite unlike most business cards which get shoved into a folder or drawer or thrown away.
Advertising budgets for your business dont have to be one of the highest expenses you incur each year on the contrary, you can lower your advertising rates by lessening the newspaper ads and increasing the promotional pens for your ads.
However, now that you have all these promotional pens, they dont do you any good sitting in a box in your storage room. You have to get them out there circulating in the general public as well as throughout your target market. You can do this by mailing them to your mailing list or one you have purchased, handing them out at trade fairs and conferences, giving them to your clients as they come to your business and handing them out as business cards or with your card, as well as to family and friends.
Ethiopia has a very rich and diverse music history. The various tribes and ethnic groups of Ethiopia have their own distinct music culture and tradition. The Tigrayans to the north have this smooth, circular dance routine culminated with shoulder and neck movement. The Amharas at the center have dance style dominated by upper body and neck movement. The Oromos to the center and south have this jumping style and full body dance routine. The Gurages have an acrobatic dance that requires high level of arm, leg and body coordination.
Traditional Ethiopian music instruments include the masingo, a one-stringed violin like instrument that is played with a bow; the krar, a six-stringed lyre, played with fingers or a plectrum; the washint, a flute made from bamboo; and various drums. There are three types of drums that are used in different occasions: the negarit (kettledrum), played with sticks, the kebero, played with hands, and the atamo, tapped with the fingers or palm. Other instruments include the begena, a huge, multi-stringed lyre often referred to as the Harp of David; the tsinatsil or sistrum, which is used in churches; the meleket, a long trumpet without fingerholes, and the embilta, a large, one-note flute used on ceremonial occasions.
In addition to the above traditional music instruments, Ethiopian music also includes various types of modern music instruments that are used by bands playing Ethiopian jazz, pop, and the like. Modern Ethiopian music instruments include the guitar, percussion, violin, saxophone, mandolin, clarinet, accordion, etc.
The masinqo is one of the most popular traditional Ethiopian music instruments used throughout Ethiopia. It is one of the fixtures in Ethiopian culture. Although it looks simple, the masinqo can, in the hands of an expert musician, produces a wide variety of melodies. It is often played by wandering minstrels as well as professional musicians, particularly at eating houses and local bars called Bunna Bet or Azmari Bet. The word Azmari is derived from the Geez word Zemmari, which means one who sings. Today, the concept mainly applies to establishments where professional masinqo players and the female singers that accompany them play.
When it comes to Azmari performances, lyrics can be largely improvised or sung with the art of double meaning called Kinie or Semmna Werq (meaning, the literal and the hidden messages). The audience is not supposed to take the lyrics literally they are challenged to listen carefully to get the golden sense. The Azmaris may praise individuals in the audience through their songs to uplift their mood. This favor in Ethiopian culture is usually responded in kind by awarding the performer cash by pasting a bill on the forehead, or stashing it in the performers shirt.
Azmaris also accept verses thrown at them by members of the audience and skillfully incorporate them into their music. In traditional Ethiopian music and Ethiopian culture, the skill at improvisation by the Azmari is as important as his/her vocal performance, or his/her skill at playing the masinqo. With such improvised lyrics, one may appreciate, denounce, advice, teach, entertain, and much more.
In recent years, Azmari Ethiopian music performances have even spread to other parts of the world outside Ethiopia. One can find Azmari Betoch in some parts of Europe and North America where there are significant pockets of Ethiopian immigrants residing, including in cities such as Washington DC and Los Angeles in the USA, and London in UK. Although these establishments are not exactly the traditional Ethiopian Azmari Bet variety, they offer many of the services their counterparts in Ethiopia provide, including music using the masinqo.
Everyone loves a good cuppa! A hot cup of Tea puts the world to rights; puts a smile on your face and warms your soul after a hard days slog. A hot cup of Tea washes away sorrows and puts a spring in your step with each loving sip. A hot cup of Tea is a comfort blanket, a medicinal treasure and something our British culture would not be the same without.
Tea drinking dates back as far as 10th century BC where it was historically recorded first originating as a Chinese custom to sip on the brewed leaves. It supposedly broke loose from its Chinese roots and began to influence adjoining Asian regions such as Japan and Korea who abruptly latched on to the Tea growing, Tea brewing, and Tea-drinking phenomenon.
Sometime during the 16th century Tea made its way into the English economy, thanks to King Charles II alliance with Portugal through his marital ties. The Portuguese maintained well-established trading channels with China through which Tea soon became an accessible commodity that us Brits did not want to do without.
In western civilization Tea first drew breath as a lavish elixir. To sip on this liquid gold was a true honor and one only presented to those of privileged parties. It was drank both medicinally and recreationally, often finding itself poured at special occasions and celebrations (usually drank from expensive china with a pert pinky on show!)
Subsequently through Indias flourishing Tea trade and a huge drop in price, by the 19th century Tea became a working-class refreshment and commonly drunk in all households. It no longer held such the regal status that it once claimed ownership to however flourished as a popular pick to have readily available on your kitchen shelves.
We Brits have drunk many a cup of char since the appearance of Tea back in the day. But long gone are those days of brewing your Tetleys or your PG Tips! Tea culture has moved on from a beloved cup of Yorkshire and a fondant fancyto a new era of health-conscious folk wanting a new lease of life from their leaves.
With the Health Benefits Of Tea becoming widely known, Tea Brands are introducing the likes of, Oolong, Puerh & Matcha Green Tea to their portfolios, parading the headlines as the new brew in town. Promising to eradicate harmful toxins, aid digestion, weight loss plus much more, these Trendy Teas appear to be the way forward in giving us a clean bill of health while enjoying a soulful sip on these invigorating infusions.
Many Tea Brands are all brewing up a storm with their cheeky concoctions, such as Chocolate Tea, Chilli Chai and Crme Caramel! And if thats not enough I have heard popcorn Tea is making its way onto centre stage! A cinematic revolution in Tea culture perhaps?
Theres a whole host of holistic Teas that offer up a wealth of diversity and deliciousness helping to cure an array of ailments from A-Z. Tea drinking certainly has risen to refinement once more with the introduction of these modern twists on ancient blends, revamping Tea as the Trendy Tea of the 21st century.
Your might think that your organization’s culture is extraordinary but its ultimate measure of success comes from how well it continues to serve the expectations of all its stakeholders. It is the development of the human power of the organization that gives an impetus to its financial capital. High performance organizations have rarely been built by nurturing the bottom line. It is only by nurturing the organizational cultures and sub-cultures that they built their bottom line.
In order to sustain success, people need to be challenged constantly so as to strengthen their cultures and this can be achieved by assessing where they are today and what their destination is. Leadership roles should encompass champions of culture and in doing so the workplace stands to benefit. But an enterprise cant just declare a road map of its work culture and expect its employees to embrace it, which actually negates the very meaning of the word culture. In order to build strong, adaptive cultures, the associates have to be motivated enough to be a key part of the whole process.
In order to amplify the potential for those interested in developing a positive culture, you can communicate it to them that they are an integral part of the desired changes and therefore, will be duly rewarded for their efforts. Change is often not welcome with open arms and this is quite often the case, especially when the management fails to inform the stakeholders of the imminent changes. Due to lack of information, the stakeholders often cling to status quo. The stakeholders have a right to the information and should have been told, When we get to this better place, heres whats in it for you.
The stakeholders should share our vision; after all, they form an important constituent of the company. So it can be quite an experience to be quite excited about the vision, share it with everyone at the seminar but only to be greeted with stony faces. The problem may lie in communication they may not see things the same way that you do. So when you talk about new ideas, new ways to make the company more productive, the associates may end up hearing something altogether different: Management has found a new way to make us do something we dont want to do. This breach in understanding has occurred, as you did not involve their input as stakeholders in developing the proposed changes.
In many organizations, as things head downhill, suggestions about trying a new model or a new approach often flow thick and fast. This kind of flavor of the month approach is both ridiculous and fatiguing. It takes more than just twisting on the cube to solve the puzzle of culture. This simple approach tries to solve the puzzle of culture by twisting on the cube and hoping that all the pieces would come together, giving way to dramatic results. The reality is that a puzzle cannot be solved in this fashion and culture does not, either. Organizational culture change is a complex process that visionary leaders understand and smartly introduce into the system in a ‘natural’ manner. The pieces of the cube themselves need to move over to their correct spots to solve the organizational puzzle. The leaders need to create an environment where this can happen.
A wedding where a loving couple begins a new life together with the blessing of many guests is an exciting event in both the East and the West. In Korea, a wedding is also a very important event that follows long held rituals and procedures. In the traditional sense, men and women were considered a true adult only when they got married. As time changed, strictly ensconced rituals and procedures have become simpler; however, a wedding is still considered as the most significant moment in life. The following explains the current culture of Korean weddings that has evolved over time.
Sanggyeonnye refers to the occasion where the parents and relatives of both of the couples’ families meet for the first time to discuss the marriage. It is the first official step towards a marriage. Once a couple decides to get married, the man visits the woman’s parents to receive their permission; then the woman visits the man’s parents to greet them. When both parents agree, the sanggyeonnye is held.
Yedan originally referred to the silk garments that the bride sent to the groom’s home. In the old days, silk was rare and expensive and was considered as a good gift item for showing respect. Traditionally, the groom’s family sent silk to the bride’s family; the bride would personally make clothes for her parents-in-law using the silk and then send it back; then, the groom’s family would send money back in appreciation of the bride’s efforts. Today, however, all gifts sent by the bride to the groom’s home are simply called yedan regardless of content.
Tip: What gifts were used as yedan?
In the old days, only goods were offered as yedan; as the times changed, however, money is also being sent for the purchase of wanted goods. Yedan is usually sent to the groom’s home about a month before the wedding. Together with money, some people also send a set of tableware, silver spoon set, and luxurious beddings.
Wedding Photo (D-50)
With the passage of time, weddings have transcended its strictly ritualistic characteristics but have maintained its place as a memorable and pleasant event. As such, taking wedding photos before the wedding has become a must. Many pictures are taken in a studio, but outdoor photos have also become common. Royal palaces such as Gyeongbokgung, arboretums, theme parks, or other memorable locales are used to take pictures. Wedding dress, tuxedos, hanbok, and comfortable casual clothes are all worn to reflect couples’ different lifestyles.
If yedan is the gift by the bride to the groom’s family, ham(pronounced [ha-am]) is the gift from the groom to the bride’s family. Originally, the hamwas sent the day before the wedding but it has become more common to send it on a pre-determined date prior to the wedding. Inside the ham, which is a gift box, are a carefully prepared proposal letter, blue and red silk, and a list of necessary items. The ham, which is wrapped in a red cloth called bojagi to stem all bad spirits, is sent to the bride’s home by hamjinabi, the male responsible for delivery of the ham to the bride’s home.
Tip: Significance of gifts
* Proposal letter: The letter is personally written by the groom’s father to thank the bride’s parents for sending their precious daughter as their daughter-in-law. This bears the significance of recognizing and blessing the marriage.
* Blue&Red Silk: Also called chaedan, the blue and red silk was originally cloth material for making hanbok. The blue silk is wrapped in red paper and then tied with a blue string; the red silk is wrapped in blue paper and tied in red. This signifies the harmonious union between the man (blue) and the woman (red). The string signifies the binding of two hearts into one for everlasting love.
Wedding Ceremony (D-DAY)
The wedding ceremony is a public ritual to notify the public of the couple’s marriage. In Korea, there are two types of wedding ceremonies. The first and most common is the Western-style wedding held in a wedding hall or church. The other is the traditional Korean wedding, which is becoming more popular among young couples that want to have a unique experience. The traditional wedding involves the bride and the groom bowing to each other in traditional wedding outfits and sharing a cup of liquor in a gourd to vow their full commitment to a happy marriage to heaven and earth. After the actual wedding ceremony, the bride and the groom participate in a pyebaek ceremony to bow to the groom’s parents. During pyebaek, the parents throw chestnuts and jujube fruits to encourage many offspring and bless a happy marriage.
Visit to the Bride’s Home (D+7)
After returning from the honeymoon, the married couple would visit the bride’s home to show their respect to the bride’s parents. That night, the couple stay there to spend the night in the parent’s room. This signifies that the parents commemorate and congratulate their daughter’s return as the wife of a man. The next day, the couple leaves for the groom’s home with ibaji, food carefully prepared by the bride’s mother.
Ibaji Food (D+8)
Ibaji comes from the word ‘ibajihada,’ meaning ‘to contribute’. The bride’s mother usually prepares ibaji right after the couple’s return from the honeymoon. It is prepared with great care to send to the in-laws through the daughter. The food can vary depending on the family style and regions, but commonly consists of galbi, seafood, fruit, and tteok (rice cakes), all made elegantly. In some cases, simpler fare such as with tteok, fruit, and hangwa is prepared. Ibaji food contains the love of the bride’s mother wishing that her daughter would be loved by her parents-in-law and would have a happy marriage. Upon receiving the ibaji food, the groom’s mother also sends back food as a sign of appreciation.
Tip: Regional Difference of Ibaji Food
* Gaeseong in North Korea: The bride prepares the food by herself at the groom’s home. It consists of tteok, noodle, and side dishes.
* Gyeongsang-do Province: One day before the wedding or on wedding day, both families exchange tteok, fruit, galbi, and liquor.
Where to Find Traditional Korean Weddings
There are two places holding traditional Korean weddings in Korea. Usually, the wedding ceremonies are held during the weekends in lieu of weekdays. Weather permitting, they are held outdoors so visitors can witness the ceremony.
For more detailed information about Korean culture, please visit the Official Korea Tourism Website
Andy Cohen knew there was a funny side of television and he was ready to explode or exploit it – take your pick. He probably would have exploded if he’d stayed a moment longer at CBS where he spent 10 years working in the “real TV” world, meantime, picking up enough background material for book on the other side of TV – the funny side.
That’s why the book “Most Talkative: Stories from the Front Lines of Pop Culture” should be on your beach reading list. Indeed if you read the hardback or Kindle versions – it doesn’t really matter which – you should have “Talkative” bookmarked as the first text to flicker up on screen. Quite simply, Andy Cohen has found that most of television is really irreverent and seems to wonder why we once treated the “greats” with the same “gravitas” that we reserved for presidents and popes.
Andy’s bright and light-hearted style, combined with the material generated by his “Watch What Happens Live,” where he holds no-holds-barred interviews that may start at how a person ended up beginning a career and end up with what the person was wearing to bed last night or who his partner was.
That has always been Andy’s style! He has wanted to know more than just the surface fluff that the studio PR departments were famous for putting out. Here’s a prime example: some years ago, when women were just breaking into Formula Ford and Formula III racing, Ford held an interview session and just to be sure that the drivers who were featured kept to the “party line” there were more PR people sitting at the table than there were reporters or drivers.
That we were able to get something out of the interview was the simple fact that no one ever went off record with most of the interview.
Andy uses this as a starting point now and it winds its hilarious way to each ending; you just never know how Andy or the celebrity will pull it off.
Actually, there was something special about Andy way back in his summer camp days as a kid. With “Charlie’s Angles” as one of his iconographic shows, and “All My Children” as another, he makes sure that he contact his Mom every day to ensure that those shows are videotaped so he won’t miss an episode. Then and there, you knew there was something more to Andy Cohen.
Sure, there are those people who want to know about TV and what’s on, but there are precious few who want to get inside and walk around with the actors who look out at the screen at you every week.
His first college paper interview was probably his dream interview with the daytime soap queen Suzanne Lucci. Andy’s course, from that time on – he also came out in college which does give him a leg up on some of the competition and does give him a fresh eye when he is looking for a new “Real Housewives” venue for Bravo.
That’s Andy’s preserve, aside from his own live TV talk show, now. Like a lion, he scours the landscape looking for new reality sites from where he can pounce and he does.
This is the type of book that has no real socially redeeming value, other than the fact that it’s enjoyable and fun to read. It’s one of the books you can easily pickup on a stormy summer evening and have most of it knocked off before you put it down. In fact, you may pick it up at sundown and never even notice that it’s sunup when you’ve finished.
No infallible advice can be given on how to write a poem, because poets develop their own approaches in time. Nonetheless, here are a few exercises to generate the raw copy.
1. Plan. Ask yourself:
How much time is available? Opening lines can be dashed off in minutes but completion may take days or weeks. Be cautious, and aim perhaps for 5-10 lines in an evening. Don’t wait for the muse, but write what you can when you can. Odd phrases and lines are at least something to work from, and more inspiring than a blank page.
When you write letters or tell stories, do you usually start from a newspaper article you’ve read, an anecdote told or overheard, something witnessed, a general reflection? Start a poem in the way you’re most comfortable with.
What sort of poem had you in mind? A story, a comment, a tribute, a protest, an elegy, a character study, a memorial? Skim through contemporary examples to start yourself off.
About the issues involved. Imagine the poem were a newspaper article: what points would you make, with what evidence and resounding arguments? Got it together? Go on then: let yourself go. Something will emerge.
2. Make sure the subject’s important to you. Death of a friend or family member, rites of passage, the bitter sweetness of first love, one of life’s turning points, old transgressions, a childhood incident, injustices, unacknowledged fears… Use a mask of the second or third person if the content is too personal or painful.
3. Give yourself up to reverie. Go for a walk, lie on the sofa and close your eyes, go to bed, cut out the surrounding world. Jot down the things that come you, in whatever order or confusion. Put the scribblings away for the present, and only open the folder hours or weeks later to see what you’ve got. You’ll be amazed at what’s inside you.
4. Free the imagination. Try:
Automatic writing. Say 5 minutes at a stretch, continuously, never stopping. Go through the material when you’ve collected in ten pages or so, and circle anything interesting.
Get a friend to say words at random. Write down the first response that comes to you. Build a poem around three of the words.
Open a diary or journal (yours or someone else’s) and jot down the first incident on three successive pages. Make a poem of these.
Describe, as closely as you can, some recurring dream or nightmare. Reverse the sequence, and then make a poem.
5. Work through metaphors. Take four lines of any contemporary poem. Identify the metaphors. Then use a thesaurus to find alternatives for the metaphors. Then repeat with the alternatives, finding words even further removed from the originals. Think deeply on three or so of the more interesting words, and see if can draft a poem incorporating them.
6. Write a pastiche. Take a stanza of something well known and rewrite it so that a) the idiom is entirely different, b) the lines end with nonsense rhymes, c) the piece is ruined with the smallest possible change, d) the piece looks completely fresh and contemporary.
7. Take the last line of one of your poems (which needn’t be good). Carry on from there, ignoring entirely what you drafted before.
8. Repeat some of these exercises on material swopped with a fellow student or poet.
The state of Gujarat lies in the western part of the country. It is one of the states, which has its distinctive culture and tradition. Arts, crafts, food and lifestyle have a unique flavor and represent the diversity of the state. Weddings in the state are grand events filled with fun and serious rituals. Family and friends attends the Gujarati Matrimony ceremonies. Gujarat also has diverse religious background. Wedding rituals differ according to the religion of practice. The majority population in Gujarat follows the Hindu religion. Gujarat Matrimony for the Hindus follows customs and traditions and strictly adheres to it. The matrimonial customs for the Hindu communities are deeply rooted in tradition.
The Gujarati Matrimony celebrations for the Hindu community start a few days before the actual day of wedding. Most the family members from the bride and groom sides are involved in the wedding process. A number of pre-wedding and post wedding rituals takes place in a Gujarati matrimonial.
The Gujarati marriage rituals start with a prayer services to Lord Ganesha. The family members of the boy and the girl come together and perform the Ganesh puja. Another prayer ritual, the Griha Shanti puja is done for a happy married life of the bride and the groom. Matching of astrological stars and horoscopes are done by the Hindu Gujarati before finalizing a wedding. Jaan is another important pre-wedding ritual where the bridegroom comes at the brides place to receive blessings from his mother-in-law.
There are many rituals in a typical Hindu Gujarati Matrimony on the wedding day. The wedding day customs in a Gujarati Matrimony are detailed. The rituals are conducted by a priest or archarya. Important rituals are Kanyadaan, Hasta Milap, Saat Pheras and Saptapadi. In the Kanyadaan ritual, the father gives away the girls responsibility to the groom. The groom holds the girl hands and accepts her responsibility at all times.
In a Gujarati Matrimony, there are many post-wedding rituals too. The Vidaai is the farewell ritual when the girls family bids her goodbye. Another important ritual is the Ghar nu Laxmi. This is the welcome ritual for the bride in her new house. The mother in law welcomes her with a traditional Aarti.
Like any other in Wedding celebration in India, the bride and groom in a Gujarati Matrimony wears traditional wedding attire for the various rituals and functions. The bride wears saris in red, pink or any other brighter color. Wedding saris of Gujarat are known as Panetar. This is a traditional bridal wear for the state of Gujarat and mostly Hindu community brides wear this on the day of wedding. The red border, done in bandhini style, a typical handwork from the state itself, easily identifies Panetar saris. The body of the sari is mostly white. Another type of sari is the Gharchola variety, which is also worn by some Gujarati brides. The Gharchola saris have crisscross pattern in bandhini work and have in between gold squares. Most of the brides wear the traditional color red on the wedding day, but in the recent times, colors like green, pink and blue are also finding place in the bridal wear. Some brides also wear lehengas on the wedding day.
The Gujarati matrimony functions also see the groom wearing traditional Indian clothes. For the wedding rituals, the groom wears dhoti and kurta. Colors preferred for the wedding ceremonies are usually fawn, cream or lemon yellow. Some groom also puts a red bandhini dupatta around the neck to complement the look. With the changing times, some grooms wear western styled suit on the reception party. The reception is held after the wedding rituals are over.
India has a great value and holds his own pride place in the history and panorama of arts that can be explored in India and world over. You can see the strong reflection of Indian art, its culture and traditional values in the depth of the life of an Indian. Here are so many interesting manifestations of the art and culture in India ranging from the elegant form of nataraja to the vibrant Rajasthani miniatures and that is also present and can be explored in the diversified images of Buddha, and the iconography of the gods and goddesses.
Indian literature has its own glorious and prestigious place in the literature of the world. India devoted a very important role in the history of the literature from Ramayana to Gita and Vedas to the Upanishads. The literature of India explores the morality and the pure way of truth that glimpse Indias traditions culture and pure art work.
You can realize and found their own way, traditions, culture and expression in the languages of India. Diverse culture, traditions and values are reflected here by the peoples. Ethnically Indians speak different languages, follow different religions and eat the most diverse varieties of food all of which add to the rich Indian culture.
The art and the traditions forms have withstood the invading Persians, Romans, Arabs, Mughals & Europeans. The traditions brought along by the invaders did merge with the existing art forms and newer varieties emerged to stand tall amidst the older traditional disciplines. Theaters in India have a glorious history and traditions of playing acts and presenting an unforgettable event in front of the viewers. The cinema of India has its golden age as its assets and gained the reputed position in the history of cinema.
The story of Indian Art and Culture that prologue to the story lies deep in the culture of the land. India, being the ancient civilization through its no changeable tradition which remains forever centuries and contemporary arts community explore the unparallel diversity of religions, art and culture.
Here the culture of the people creating the work of art. One may realize in India the rich culture, ancient traditions, unchanged values of rich heritage and languages over the centuries. When we talk about the murals then we are saying a huge work executed on the wall of solid structures. And another type of paintings that can be explores on the small base that may be the paper, cloths etc.
The famous and ancient Indian art, its painting that provide a glimpse of the ancient India moving to the modernity. One can feel the cultural and architectural development that is purely flourished on the paintings of India. The paintings of India can be classified widely as murals and the miniatures.
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Taxila lies 35 km to the west of Islamabad and to the northwest of Rawalpindi off the Grand Trunk Road.
It is one of the most prominent archaeological sites in the world. In fact, it is well-known for being the center of Buddhism as well as the centre for learning and culture. It also has the famous Gandhara sculpture.
Many statues of Buddha, each depicting a different meaning or activity, can be found at Taxila. These are generally made of stone and stucco and show the different stages in his life and his transition to enlightenment. Statues of other famous people in history such as Alexander the Great and the eminent ruler Asoka can also be found here. All the statues show great skill and craftsmanship because they are carved very intricately and are aesthetically pleasing. Taxila was taken over by Alexander the Great in 327 BC after which it was ruled by the Mauryans. Towards the end, it came under Asokas rule during which time it reached the zenith of its development and culture. Eventually, Taxila was taken over and destroyed
The last period for Taxila was the Gandhara period. It was during this time that Taxila became a world known centre for philosophy and art. The city also attracted many people from the region of China and Greece, primarily because of it being a centre for Buddhism.
Like Mohenjodaro and Harappa, Taxila was well-planned as a city with wide streets and well-built houses as well as stupas for the priests. The royalty of the time lived in splendid palaces in the city. Gold, silver coins and other jewellery items have also been excavated from Taxila.
At present, Taxila is a mixture of urban and rural elements with the residential areas in the form of small colonies in the urban areas. These are populated by people who work in the industries and other institutions located within the city. The city also has a museum which contains the remains of the Ghandara civilization. Taxila has been declared a world heritage site by UNESCO.
The city still serves to be an attraction for historians, students as well as a number of tourists because of its grandeur and its excellent architecture. To cater to tourists and students, a souvenir shop which offers a large variety of items, is located within the city so that visitors can
send gifts to Pakistan and also take something back with them as a reminder of the secrets buried within the ruins. In fact, the shop also offers courier facilities through which
Pakistan gifts can be sent to relatives and friends so that they too, can get a glimpse of what the historical site has to offer. It must be remembered that Taxila is an ancient site and therefore it is uncertain as to how long it will remain. Therefore, it would be wise to give your loved ones an opportunity to enjoy the beauty of this ancient city with you by sending them souvenirs and
Pakistan gifts that they will actually cherish.
At various points in history, strange things have taken place in the history of Russia. It has seen numerous regimes and bloodthirsty controllers – culture displays that. In the end, culture really gives us a picture of the kinds of thoughts and ideas which took root at humanity’s core. The USSR and its art and culture was a good example of this. It is evident that fear played a large part in getting the Communist regime to the status it held for so long.
The truth of the matter is that Russia has always been oppressed. Freedom did manage to triumph in the end, but Russia’s political climate was different then. We have evidence of this oppression that people had to face. In the corrupt leaders of Communism we can see this.
The culture of the time, in the form of art and music, shows us this resilience held by the people. These works of art are certainly controlled by outside forces and dominant factors, but they do carry strange senses of foreboding. The Russian people have long faced terrible oppressors and in their art, that is reflected.
In fact, this carried over even into the art which was produced specifically for the Russian empire and Communist regime’s leaders. Many posters and propaganda images were put out to spread the ideas of Communism, and these posters are somewhat surreal but all carry an interesting and heavy message. They were intended to influence how people thought about things – and specifically, Communism.
Many times the Communist leaders are portrayed as heroic figures in these posters, even though in reality they were corrupt political leaders who used violence and terror to get what they wanted. Things could be portrayed much different in posters, and the leaders of the party knew of the power of art and visual images to shape peoples’ ideas.
Finally we must see the Russian empire’s culture as it really was: a time when the USSR and its Communist party were dominant and yet art could still thrive under these conditions. Communism changed the world, but even in chaos, art persisted.
Certainly this is one reason for which people who collect Russian art now have this passion. Modern collectors do display some of these posters very often in their home or work collections. The Communist period shows us that the frightening USSR regime was a bizarre time, but that history survives no matter what. This is our great gift as humans.
Even so we must treat this period with care, as it was a time of death and terror and sadness. We must mourn for what was lost, but cannot discount the greatness of the artists who came in this time and continued to produce works of art to show us what humanity is capable of, for both terror and for greatness. We can never lose our vigilance of this fact. USSR posters and these reminders of Russian empire culture show us this.
One way to save time is to simply read the newspaper less. In fact, you might even go so far to even stop reading the newspaper altogether. The newspaper is filled with crimes and bad news that wouldn’t affect you anyway. When you read the newspaper less, not only will you save time, but you’ll feel more positive.
Let’s say you spend 15 minutes a day reading the newspaper. If you were to stop reading the newspaper, you’d save about 91 hours a year. That’s like having an extra half of a work month every year.
When you stop reading the newspaper, not only will you save time, but you’ll save money too. You won’t have to spend money on newspaper subscriptions. You can use that money on other things.
To stop reading the newspaper, put yourself on a 21-day fasting plan. For the next 21 days, force yourself not to read the newspaper. If you read the newspaper on one day, you’ll have to start over again from day 1.
At the end of the 21 days, you’ll have established a new habit of not reading the newspaper. Once this habit is established, you’ll find it easy not to read the newspaper.
If you don’t want to completely give up on reading newspapers, you can at least limit the time you spend reading them. Instead of spending 15 minutes a day reading the newspaper, you could limit it to 5 minutes. Read only the main sections of the newspaper that are important to you and skip the rest.
The influence that celebrities have on the average person is phenomenal. Many young girls especially want so much to look just like their favorite star they go as far as starving themselves. Stars can have negative influence as well as positive. When stars get arrested for drugs or alcohol it sends a message that this is cool and many young people try the same thing, but with much different results. They dont get special treatment like stars do and sometimes their lives are irreparably damaged. Many celebrities have failed marriages and relationships and this also sends a message to the average person that marriage is not something that lasts. When a celebrity just gets tired of one partner they find another. I think we as normal people think our lives are boring and uneventful compared to a celebrity and so we try to do what they do and find total unhappiness.
There are entire shows on TV that are geared toward criticizing what the celebrities are wearing to the Oscars or Emmys. We see the stars wearing jewels worth millions and one of a kind gowns that are usualy reserved for fairy princesses. We then go to our closet and see a couple of ordinary dresses, a lot of old jeans and sweats and feel ungrateful and unhappy. This can make the average person feel resentful and jealous. Our culture puts these stars on pedestals and we compare their lives to ours and that is unrealistic.
Many people actually get into incredible debt trying to look like a celebrity. Many people even have plastic surgery to make themselves look like their favorite star. One evening gossip shows demonstrates how to look like a celebrity on a budget because they know we all want the look the stars have. They show the celebrity all dressed up and take the outfit apart piece by piece and show you how and where you can get the same look for less. Many people take that seriously and get into debt trying to look the way the stars do.
Another influence celebrities have on our culture is that of invading ones privacy. Nothing is sacred anymore. The paparazzi follow their every move and that seems to invade their right to privacy. I think that is a bad thing to be teaching our children. There is also the danger aspect of racing to follow a star and causing accidents. The paparazzi seem to be willing to risk anything to get a picture, which is a negative influence for our culture. Their is also the special treatment mentioned earlier. Stars are somehow thought of better than a bum in the street, but we are all entitled to the same rights and freedoms. I think that causes anger in our culture.
Celebrities have incredible influence today in our world. They seem to be royalty in this country and we love to watch their every move. I think it makes our lives seem a little less boring. We need to be careful not to make them perfect, because they will fall and when that does happen many people will become disillusioned and possibly even depressed.
Indian marriages are famous all over the world due to its grandness and the scale on which it is celebrated. Also, there are as many types of marriages as the number of castes, religions, cultures and states exist in the country. Every community or group has there own rituals or ceremonies to be performed as a part of the marriages that take place there. Most people from Indian origin want to marry their child in the same caste or religion as theirs. There are endless number of castes in India, all of which are different from each other in one or the other way, they are differentiated either on the bases of god they worship, their origin, or the work they practice.
Some of the castes in India are like Brahmin, Bania, Iyer, shatriyas, Kohli, Khatri, Singh, Punjabi, Pandit, Jains, Karnawat, Sudan, Jaiswal, Kamboj, Kayastha, etc. Out of all the castes Kayasthas are referred to as the writing caste, which are the sub- sects of Brahmans and are mainly the residents of the North India. They worship lord Chitragupta, whose temples are mainly found in the south with the prominent ones in Kanchipuram.
Though, the wedding ceremonies of the Kayastha caste are almost same everywhere, with a little reflection of the area or the region in which they live. They prefer marrying in their own caste. The wedding ceremony, as others, is divided into three parts, pre, during and post wedding. The wedding customs or rituals followed in a kayastha marriage are:
Pre- Wedding Rituals:
Bariksha- A ceremony, which marks the acceptance of the girl and boy to be married with each other. In this, the Kayastha girls family sends a silver bowl full of rice, supari and turmeric powder and an envelop containing cash, symbolizing the confirmation of the relation to be formed between two families.
Sagai- Sagai or the engagement ceremony takes place with the exchange of rings called engagement rings in-between the Kayastha Bride and groom. The grooms family visits the house of the bride with gifts, jewelry and dresses for the bride. The would-be mother- in- law of the bride also applies red tikka on her forehead and places all the gift items on her lap.
Haldi ceremony: This ceremony takes places in both the houses of bride as well as the groom separately. As a part of this ceremony, a paste of turmeric, vegetable oil, milk, henna, called Uptan is applied on the face, feet and arms of both the bride and the groom by the elder women of the family. The significance of applying this paste is to purify the couples mind body and soul for a healthy and happy beginning of their married life.
Tilak Ceremony: Tilak ceremony takes place at the house of the groom with all the brides family members present there with gifts, dresses and cash, which are then placed at the grooms lap by each family member with the application of red tilak on his forehead.
Mehandi: Mehandi is a ritual celebrated a day before the Kayastha marriage; an evening full of fun, dance and feast is celebrated. Mehandi with beautiful designs is applied on the hands of the bride and her friends & relatives. Unlike other caste marriages, Mehandi or Henna designs are made on Kayastha grooms hands also.
Bhaat- Bhaat is a lunch ceremony organized by the maternal uncle of the bride for the groom and his family members. Gifts are also given by the brides uncle to the Kayastha groom and his family.
Baraat: Its a procession full of dance and joy constituting the grooms family and friends walking down to the wedding venue. The groom wears Achkan, Chooridar, turban and a Kalgi, after which he is, applied a red tikka on his forehead by his family members.
At the entrance of the marriage venue, the grooms family gets a warm welcome by the brides family, after which the bride comes into the wedding hall and the Jaimala ceremony takes place, in which the Kayastha bride and the groom exchanges garlands with each other, after which they are taken to the mandap, where the actual wedding ceremony takes place, with the priest reciting the spiritual prayers.
Kanyadan ceremony, the ritual where, the father of the bride gives away the responsibility of her daughter to the groom for life time by holding their joined hands in front of the sacred fire. Then a scarf a given to the groom which id tied to the brides pallu, after they take seven circles around the sacred fire with the promises of being with each other in all spheres of life. This concludes the wedding ceremony.
Then the bride leaves her maternal house a part of the ceremony called, Bidai, which is a very emotional moment for the whole family as the bride is moves to her new house leaving all the childhood memories behind.
Post- Wedding rituals
After the marriage, the newly wed Kayastha couple is welcomed by the grooms family in his house, followed by a muh- dikhai ceremony in the bride is greeted by gifts and sweets by all her new family members.
Few useful links:
History of Batik Malaysia The origins of batik production in Malaysia is not easy to trace. Many have said that Malaysian batik was first introduced by the Javanese. This can be seen clearly as the early batik Malaysia were very much influenced with Javanese inspired designs.
There are sources that claim that the early stage of Batik Malaysia started off with the use of wooden blocks (with motifs carved on it) which were then chopped several times to the cloth to form a pattern. This technique is also known as batik chop. In late 1920s, the Javanese batik makers introduced the use of wax and copper blocks on the East Coast.
The production of hand drawn batik in Malaysia is relatively new. Known as batik tulis, the commercial production started in the 1960s. This is a free hand method of drawing whatever the artist inspire just like drawing on a white sheet of paper, only difference is that this is on a cloth.
Over the years, this craft has developed its own particular aesthetic and design, peculiar to Malaysia. The motifs drawn by the Malaysian artisans include the Islamic values whereby motifs of animals are strictly prohibited. These are still very much practiced in the East Coasts states of Terengganu and Kelantan where batik is still very prominent. However, some artists from Kuala Lumpur adapt a more open minded concept with butterfly motifs, which in a way has now been like a symbol to Batik Malaysia.
Another huge difference in the batik drawing of Indonesian batik and Batik Malaysia is that the motifs of Batik Malaysia tend to be larger and in a way less refined. However, it still has its own beauty in its own way.
Because of this, the method of handrawn batik is also very different, with Malaysian artists tend to spread the cloth wide before the draw on it. The Indonesians on the other hand can sit down on a stool to draw using their hand as a base.
In the recent years, Batik Malaysia has become very much a freedom of expression or in a way a piece of art where just plays of colours and geometric lines are used.
Today, in Malaysia, Batik Malaysia is combined with fashion giving batik a new life. It is common to see fashion shows where models parade beautiful batik dresses.
Apart from the catwalk shows, Batik still is a formal dress that politicians use to dawn at functions. This in a way keeps batik very much alive. However, Batik Malaysia seems to only reach the elite KL folks, as the reach of batik to the general public is still very little, with many dont really know the difference between the kebaya dress and batik. And to them, batik is still very traditional, and not modern hence abstaining themselves from it.
Rotterdam, the Netherlands, is a city with a panoply of wonders for its visitors, with an everlasting list of attractions, events, festivals and a variety of museums and cultural venues to explore.
The city’s impressive skyline is the testimony of its innovative architectural style and cultural development, featuring the renowned Cube Houses and Museum House, which are not to be missed.
If you are in Rotterdam in quest of art and culture, your expectations will be fulfilled. This city is set in a background of museums, galleries, theatres and concert halls. There are always major exhibitions at the Boijmans Van Beuningen and Kunsthal Museums, which boast exceptional art in an immense setting.
Smaller galleries are no exception for the quality of art their exhibitions present, and there are many to choose from throughout Rotterdam, such as the captivating gallery at the Witte de Withstraat.
For exceptional musical performances you can head to the De Doelen and listen to enchanting concerts in an environment renowned for its outstanding acoustics. At the Rotterdam Schouwburg you can delight in opera, dance performances and contemporary drama, while the leading musicals can be found at the New Luxor.
The capital offers a wide range of choice attractions for all tastes and ages. Set off to explore the city with the unique Splashtours that offer tourists both a ground view and a river view of the city aboard the famous amphibious bus. Do not miss the Rotterdam Port Experience, set in the city’s vast port, the largest in Europe or climb aboard the renowned Rotterdam steamship, the largest passenger ship built in Netherlands.
If you are looking for a place in which to relax and enjoy what nature has to offer, head for the Arboretum Trompenburg, where a verdant backdrop welcomes those with a passion for trees and plants. Explore the vast expanse of dunes in Hoek van Holland, with its enormous Maeslantkering flood barrier, one of the seven world wonders of the modern world!
Experience the varied backdrops and wide range of animal species at the Blijdorp Zoo, with its immense indoor Oceanium aquarium, offering a 360 view through a glass passage directly below the sharks.
For another 360 view point, of the city this time, head to the platforms of the Euromast for breathtaking views of the city and harbor. You can soar up into the air on the rotating lift to the top of the 185-meter tower for an exceptional observation point.
Rotterdam has so much to offer its visitors, and will render each visit a memorable experience. You don’t want to miss Rotterdam on your tour through Europe!
Newspaper classified advertising is in great demand since long time. Such ads are very helpful for small advertisers. They can invest small amount and get very good response by Newspaper classified advertising. In todays time, classified advertising has become very easy. Now, advertisers can book there ad online. Newspaper advertising agencies provide online booking facility.
They ask to follow some easy steps to place order. It happens in past when advertisers have to wait for uncountable days to place their order. Online newspaper advertising agency provides an easy process to book newspaper ad. It does not take more than half hour to book ad online. Here, the step by step procedure given to book your newspaper classified online. You need to first select your package. Next, click on the book button of your chosen package. After this, you will land to the compose page. Online advertising agency gives you ad samples as per your category. So, take the help of ad samples as they are prepared by experts. Then you need to select the ad details that include no of package, day of publishing, sub category. An option is given to preview your advertising message. After viewing your classified ad, click on continue. Your step will take you to the payment page. There you have to give some details to finally make payment. After making your payment, you will get confirmation on your mail.
Newspaper advertising agency offers different payment procedures. It includes credit card, debit card, bank transfer as well as direct payment. However, it is advisable to make payment online. It helps you in avoiding lots of troubles. If you feel any trouble during the booking process then you can ask for support. The client servicing executive helps you in the selection of package as well as booking process. Sometimes advertisers are not able to compose their ad by own. If you are also one of them then you can ask for creative support. The client servicing executive will provide you ad matter. After booking your newspaper classified ad, you will get notification on your email address. In the confirmation mail, you will receive complete details about your booking order.
So, now, you must come to know that how it is easy to book your ad online. You can also delight with best rates. You do not need to pay anything extra for the above mentioned services. You just need to pay the charges of package. So, book your ad through internet and get the best experience.
The Japanese word “Origami” means folding papers into shapes to make objects that are decorative. When making an origami flower this is exactly what is done. I had become extremely depressed and stressed out lately because an unfortunate accident had left me home bound for the past six months with no transportation, therefore when I saw an ad for making origami flowers at home I thought I would try it.
Making origami paper flowers was a very relaxing pass time, and surprisingly to me in retrospect it became one of my, if not the most, favorite hobbies. It also gave me emotions of joy and calmness when I looked at the wonderful origami flower I created. Now, both my stress level and depression have improved dramatically.
There are only a few key items that are needed to make an origami flower. All the different colors that you need to create an origami flower can be purchased at your local arts and craft, or hobby store. The folding process usually uses paper that is thinner than newspaper and it’s also cut into the right size and shape, although you could use newspaper. The only tools you need is a pair of scissors, a pencil, and a ruler.
One of the easiest origami flowers to make is the rose. One sheet of origami paper is needed for the leaves and three pieces are needed for the flower. The second red piece is about three quarters the length of the first, and the third is about three quarters the length of the second one. The green one (the fourth square) will be have the same measurements as the largest red piece. Origami square base is the pattern that will be used to fold all three of the red pieces.
This is a simple process to learn…
Take one square and fold it on the diagonals, then on the East-West line and the North-south line. The colored side should be facing upwards…
Now fold the diagonals as the valley goes (downward), and the East-West and North-South as the mountain goes (upward). This process can be repeated on the remaining two pieces…
Now, fold the right corner of the base to the imaginary line in the middle and then unfold it…
Next fold the edge onto the crease mark you made and unfold it. Now, fold the right side to the left and then on the reverse side repeat this process. With the other two pieces of red origami paper, perform the same steps…
You now place all the different rose pedal form inside each other to create a 3D looking flower. Lastly, shape the green paper to make leaves and put it underneath all the red pedals for a beautiful flower.
Learning how to make origami paper flowers is an inexpensive hobby that can be very rewarding. Once you have all the right directions, it is easy learn how to create a paper origami of your very own. This process might take about one to two hours to learn for some people but usually less to get the basics down and to be able to make great flowers. Certainly, the more origami flowers you make the faster the creation process will be.
To get visual instructions for learning How to Make Origami Flowers Erich Simko invites you to visit his free web site with images, instructions, videos, detailed steps and more.
Erich Simko is an avid and enthusiastic Paper Flower creator, Origamist and Arts and Crafts buff. Learning How to Paper Origami Flowers in particular has helped him through difficult times in his life and he believes it will bring much joy to your life as well.
The newspapers were hardly getting used to the news being telecasted on the television, when all of a sudden the advent of internet brought a crucial blow to the newspaper industry. Most of the newspapers have not been able to withstand the onslaught of the internet and forced into closure. Let us first see the basic difference between the newspapers and online news.
Pros of the online news
The advantages of online news are mainly for the readers. Some of these advantages are as follows.
The online news is much faster than the newspapers. The moment something happens in any part of the world it gets published on the internet within seconds. In case of newspapers there is a specific time limit for any news to be reported in any particular newspaper. Suppose the newspaper goes for printing at midnight, anything that happens after midnight is going to most probably get published the next day. In these sorts of situation the newspaper offers stale news to the readers who have already accessed the online news.
Any newspaper get published once, twice or maximum thrice a day. On the other hand online news usually gets updated several times in 24 hours.
If one has accesses to the internet, one does not have to wait for the delivery man to deliver the newspaper.
Online news is considered to save paper and help at conservation of nature.
Cons of the online news
The online news has some disadvantages but those are mainly for the newspaper publishers. The rates of subscriptions and advertisements are greatly reduced in case of online news. This implies that as the number of readers of online news increases the revenue generation of the newspaper publisher is falling drastically.
Ways for the newspapers to survive
There are only a few ways that the newspapers can resort to for surviving the blow of the online news. Some of the newspapers charge subscription to the readers that like to read more than what is offered for free. There is just a link for “more” which can be activated and operational after paying some subscription charges. If you do not pay the subscription the “more” link cannot be activated.
Most of the newspaper publishers have realized that if they want the newspaper to survive they have to publish the newspaper in print as well as online on the internet.
The iPad from Apple has brought some hope for the newspapers. There are applications that allow the iPad user to access the internet and the newspapers too.
Nowadays it becomes necessary for the newspaper to make a unique offering to its readers.
The other way for the newspaper publishers to survive is through blogging. There are chances that levying subscription can reduce the revenue generated but at the same it is also seen that unique blogs can bring a lot of business to the newspaper publisher.
SPINX is a Atlanta Web Design and Web Development company providing different services for Web Design GA, in Local area and Worldwide.
In a competitive market Hollywood as an industry would fail. Hollywood is an oligopolistic industry that has excessive power and little restraint. In general Hollywood provides bad product, repetitive models, less than exhilarating and uplifting personalities, and a culture that is extremist in its anti-Western, anti-capitalist and anti-Republican posture. In a normally functioning and competitive market, Hollywood would be dead-wood. But sadly in its oligopolistic position it just accretes more power. Its impact is devastating.
According to a New Times story, the entire Hollywood complex generates almost $90 billion per annum in revenues. Movies alone amass $10 billion per annum in revenues. Inside this industrial chaebol we find the production and sales of DVD movies, TV entertainment shows, pop-music, and consumer goods of all varieties. Hollywood is more than just movies. The ancillary spin-offs of Hollywood are vast and are important contributors to the US economy and the world’s perception of what it means to be an American.
Political power is always tied to money. Hollywood has great influence in American and increasingly world politics. The creation of an oligopoly in any industry allows controlling interests to accumulate incredible store-houses of wealth. This wealth finds it way into political activism. So it goes with Hollywood. From Sean Penn, to Michael Moore, to various elites that run the studios, the Hollywood money machine pours money almost exclusively [with exceptions like James Wood, Bruce Willis or Jack Nicholson], into left-wing causes. The reasons for this are not clear but 3 propositions can be forwarded.
First, Hollywood is a cabal of self-indulgent liberal-socialists because most Hollywood power brokers are uneducated in what constitutes the construction and history of modern civilization. Their ignorance is obvious when you hear them discuss any matters of gravity. Actors and actresses with a high school education have little credibility in lecturing the world about non-entertainment matters. This leads them to assume that the modern world has always been here, always will be here, and that it was only created by corrupt, self-serving white men, who exploited others for gain. What this says about their own methods of getting their large fortunes, they don’t say.
Second, Hollywood as a general group, believes that capitalism and anything related to a market system is bad. It is hard to understand this sick obsession Hollywood has with destroying market forces but it may be related to living in an unregulated, but powerful oligopoly. Hollywood insiders and ultra-millionaires are drunk on their expansive power and like all ego’s tend to view life [and society] as something that should conform to their tastes and style, not something that is organic, full of independent ideas and meaningful variety. A complicated world outside of Hollywood does not exist for such people.
Coming from a bubble-environment where little real competition exists [outside of fighting internally over money, power, contracts and acting roles], Hollywood sees little need for discussion over complex and arcane issues such as price points, supply and demand intersections, the morality of individualism, or the need for faith. A lack of understanding of what constitutes civilisational development and the roles of the family, the market, the state, faith, and the Western Enlightenment tradition permeates Hollywood. Their product makes this obvious. The insidious result is an industry that opposes almost all of the traditions that gave rise to the prosperous nation state.
Hence most Hollywood movies, with some exceptions, are popular pulp nonsense full of unfunny comedies, and repetitive, unserious themes usually denigrating various ideals that don’t conform to Hollywood’s view of the world. And Hollywood’s vision of the world is very confused. Setting itself up as the anti-thesis of market-capitalism and responsible government Hollywood supports only those causes and institutions that were once marginalized or are now anti-thetical to our own survival.
When George Clooney made his terrible fantasy movie Syriana which implicates the CIA and US government in fostering terrorism he gave the typical left-wing Hollywood/liberal viewpoint on the current war against fascist Islam and terrorism: “They (the terrorists) are, in a way, the most sympathetic (characters in the movie), but I think that’s important. Because if you are going to fight a war on terror, which is not a state that you can go and bomb, then you need to understand what it is that creates the people that would do such horrible things, rather then just saying labeling them as evildoers.” [Source: Media Research Center]
So Clooney lists the simpleton view of the world that the UN, Hollywood, and the EU subscribe to. Terrorism is our fault. The root causes are Western ignorance. We don’t understand them enough to make a judgement. Terrorists are nice people really, who have just gone a little bad. Understand their root causes please. Don’t bomb indiscriminately and kill people etc. etc. Mindless nonsense which finds its way into all sorts of Hollywood productions and exports.
When Al Gore publishes fear-mongering tripe on Global Warming and receives an award for his scare-mongering efforts to gain political power during one of the coldest and nastiest winters in recent memory, Hollywood is too vapid to note the irony. While New York sits under 10 feet of snow and whole areas of the globe have experienced one of the coldest winters on record, Hollywood bestows on Gore a 2nd place prize for losing the 2000 election by acclaiming his seriously flawed piece of theatre An Inconvenient Truth’. It is doubtful that Gore the Marxist politician would have received an award for a documentary entitled, ‘What made America great’.
We will witness an ice age long before a 0.010 % increase in C02 emissions cooks up the planet in a human inspired microwave. Hollywood’s lockstep salute to Al Gore reveals deep bathos. No debate, no inquiry, no deviation from the elite’s view of the world is tolerated. Hollywood’s open support of eco-fascism, Gore, and other left wing politicians is deeply troubling. Since its influence is immense and global, Hollywood’s Marxist activism influences all age groups and distorts real facts and political debate. It is a hard juggernaut to overcome.
Clooney, Gore and others illustrate a third reason why Hollywood is so Marxist. Like most matters in natural science politics abhors a vacuum. If you want political power and influence and you are sitting in Hollywood with millions what makes more sense? To compete with other well entrenched, high powered-monied and corporate interests to influence right-wing Republican policies? Or should you moralize with the left-wingers who are in need of cash and support outside of their typical union-lawyer support base? Not only does left-wing activism need Hollywood money, the ego-assuaging and moralizing back-patting appeals to those whose sense of self is somewhat smaller than God’s but larger than life.
But Hollywood should note this. When a movie with some serious content comes out, such as Lord of the Rings, it tends to do incredibly well. The reason is obvious many in the general public are exhausted by Hollywood’s bad, immoral, self-indulgent product and rush out to view something with intelligence and meaning. Traditional values are dormant not dead. Hollywood is now so out of touch with the average person that one can only hope for a sharp reduction in the monies that consumers will send to the millionaire supports of cultural and political Marxism. Without a serious competitor to Hollywood’s oligopoly, this is more a hope than a certainty.
At one time, from its inception to about the 1980s, Hollywood was a different animal. It produced reasonably good quality product, was pro-American, proud of its Western heritage and reasonably supportive of higher culture. Movies had serious themes. Actors and actresses had class, dressed appropriately [with some exceptions], and took seriously their jobs as public role models. They were flawed, but the quality of their performances and their public demeanor shames today’s Hollywood elite. Sometime during the 1970s all this changed for the worse.
Hollywood has transformed itself into a parody of cultish group-think. The cult has turned away from the spirit of the Western tradition towards sinister concepts supporting eco-fascism, cultural Marxism, rampant socialism, widespread sexuality, anti-Christian ideals and low standards. Hollywood’s obsession with sex and homosexuality is pathological. More important things exist in life then satisfying bestial passions. If culture is king, then Hollywood is certainly the leader of low culture, and is thus a huge problem in our society today. Civilisations collapse when culture disappears.
Hollywood represents all that is wrong with the liberal-socialist club that is becoming dominant across the US and is entrenched in Europe and Canada. Britney Spears, Anna Nicole Smith, Susan Sarandon, Sean Penn and others have nothing intelligent or compelling to offer, or say. Yet the general public supports them by buying their low quality product, and listening and even acting on their misguided rants and Marxist opinions.
It is peculiar that Western civilization has now created a powerful oligopolistic industry intent on destroying its host society. Even in the animal kingdom organisms don’t create parasites which kill them. Yet the Western world through US low culture seems intent on doing just that.
The only anodyne for Hollywood? More competition and the creation of technologies and entertainment studios who oppose Hollywood’s ideas and who will battle for the consumer’s entertainment dollar.
While most people in online dating sites are out to find love (both long term and casual), Dr. Jeff Gavin, a professor at the University of Bath in Great Britain, is on there scouring for trends and patterns among behaviors of participants.
From his psychological stand point, Dr. Gavin has synthesized some of the most interesting facts about online dating participants from all over the world. Some of them are listed below by country:
a. United Kingdom. Unlike in some part of the world where internet dating is not common, people in UK have already learned to embrace online dating widely as evidenced by the absence of any associated social stigma. Those who are in online dating sites are no longer viewed as weird and eccentric, rather are simply viewed as people who prefer the comfort of their homes while dating.
b. The United States. The US has the second highest online dating participants in the world (second to China). According to Dr. Gavin, Americans tend to be more verbal. Communication is more dependent on content and people express explicitly through what they say. This is not very far from the offline American culture where people are very vocal and often exercise their freedom of speech. Daters from the US are also not hesitant to connect with multiple strangers.
c. Japan. Dr. Gavins research has mostly focused on Japanese online dating culture. It has been widely known that Japanese are not very verbal, and context cues are used as often as verbal cues when communicating effectively with others. Dr. Gavin found something interesting: intimacy is established when two people messaging on the site drop their formal language after quite some time. If the formal language is dropped too early, however, people see this as a turn-off.
Also, when dating online, Japanese participants said that the sites gave them freedom to transgress some of the social norms (such as approaching multiple strangers and ceasing communication). This culture is often typical not only in Japan dating but also on the rest of Asian dating sites.
These are the three countries covered by the Dr. Gavins comparative research on online dating. Other countries like Russia, Mexico, China, South Africa, Brazil, etc also have certain characteristics when it comes to online dating behaviors, as each country has different norms and cultures.
When figuring behaviors of online dating by country, it is best to research on the countrys offline cultures first then learn from them.
Trivia games are becoming more and more popular these days among children. Trivia games are popular everywhere across the globe; its popularity is increasing day by day with the introduction of such games on the internet platform. These games are very famous among the children and also among adults as these games act as good icebreaker at all social events. Many shows on television and many websites on the internet have games relating to trivia games covering a variety of topics ranging from pop culture games to celebrity trivia games. Many websites now even offer various prizes for the winners of such games or for the highest scorers.
These trivia games are becoming a rave today as they attract people of almost all age groups and such people always are expected to know the answer of the questions asked in a trivia game. An example of a very famous trivia game is Trivial Pursuit. In this game the players try to earn more and more pieces by making their way around a board. Trivia games are for many different topics including music, television, fashion, pop culture games, so the players have a wide variety of choice among them.
Some of these trivial games include topics such as drama, cinema, television, pop culture and many others. Trivial games comes in different modes according to the capability of the user such as easy, medium and expert levels which allows the user to choose his level according to his experience and knowledge about the topic chosen by him. The number of questions also sometimes depends on the level chosen by the player. Many trivia games have different versions which help the user choose the version according to his mood and interest and thus give a wide variety of choice to the user. There are different versions of Trivial Pursuit also to suit any sort of player and his interests. No matter what a players interests are there is almost a trivial game which will match his interest. With the introduction of trivial games on the internet the number of player of these games have drastically increased worldwide which consequently increased the competition among the merchants online thus giving the user a wide variety of choices available at just a click.
The games have become a source of entertainment among people and a competition among friends to test their knowledge about a particular subject. These games are won by those people who have good knowledge about a particular subject and not just by luck. It is a game of knowledge and not calculations. It tests the knowledge of the player in all possible ways.
This article features all the facts that why the Pakistani newspaper in Urdu is preferred. It gives a lot of understanding to the readers and some of the columnists are also the focal attention of the readers. Apart from hearing them, reading them is also prioritized by the readers in Pakistan. This shows the tendency and dominance of newspapers in Urdu.
As the national language of Pakistan is Urdu so newspapers published in Pakistan are mostly in Urdu. Urdu newspapers are also accompanied by English newspapers but the literacy rate understanding of the readers usually increases the demand of Urdu newspapers. The rate of readers of Urdu newspapers is increasing day by day which actually shows that how many people are interested in reading. We can’t ignore the fact that we have readers that don’t read Urdu newspapers but on the other hand the majority depicts the likes of newspapers in Urdu.
In earlier times, there were only a couple of names who used to publish their newspapers in Urdu but with the passage of time more printing media agencies popped out and give the readers a lot of options of selecting among them. Pakistani newspaper in Urdu has a great impact on the readers because it follows a very distinctive pattern and has a tendency to grab hold the reader’s attention by turning it into a definite taste for them. This predisposition is not the only reason for the newspapers in Urdu to dominate but the language barrier also has a role to play in it.
Of course people with little literacy rate can’t get the exact understanding of the news and articles in the paper but what they speak every day, hour, minute can give them a better understanding without even focusing or concentrating solemnly. As Pakistan is not a country that is fully digitized so the print media still plays a vital and integral role for the people of Pakistan. The digital media haven’t started to play the exact role in Pakistan as compared to the contribution it is doing in other parts of the world. So, this phenomenon has a hefty worth within the boundaries of this country as the weight of demand of this medium is highly relied by the natives.
If we enlighten the cost included in purchasing a newspaper then it is very nominal. Pakistani newspapers in Urdu are very economical and the price doesn’t discriminate between the high and low kudos. It has cost as low as you can’t even think about but it all depends on the publisher of the newspapers and how pragmatic the news really is. People also like to read articles on current affairs which are written by the top-notch individuals of this society. People have an urge to learn the recommendations and suggestions made by those individuals as they usually talk with the real facts that a human nature is always in search of. On the other hand, the Government issues their tenders and job vacancies through a selected group of print media which also helps them in increasing their demand among the people. These are the most core outlines contained by Pakistani newspaper in Urdu and is and followed by readers.
Furthermore, now Pakistani Newspaper in Urdu are also available on the internet as well. These publishing groups have created their own websites for the online readers but it doesn’t affect the sale. The news on the websites are updated regularly which helps the reader in getting a better understanding of the current affairs. These newspaper agencies or print media has a dominance in Pakistan because the people are still relying on it and the current stats depict that this trend will stay for a longer period.